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" If yoa will have a young man to put his travels into a little rooin, and in short 
time to gither much, this you must do : first, as was said, he must have some entrance 
into the language before he goeth ; then he must have sut-h a son-ant or tutor as 
knoweth the country, as was likewise said ; let him carry with him also some card, 
or book, describing the country wliero he travclleth, which will be a good key to his 
Inqubr; let him also keep a diary."— ^ortm. 



^^J. ^fl^. /7i. 


With pleasant recollections of the Author's fellow- 
voyagers : — 

Whether, as some, they have since manfully fought the 
battle of life, and having acquired power and repute, 
are now moulding the destinies of future empires ; — 

Or, as some, are laboriously toiling among the heathen, 
teaching the pure truths of Christianity, and living 
its bright exemplars ; — 

Or, as others, have passed ^A^y, leaving on the mind a 
tranquil image of t their existence, as the memory of 
a happy dream :-^*. 

In honor of the sea he *-loves ; — 

To present, as in a phantasmagory, to dwellers at home, 
by their own firesides, pictures of the world beneath 
their feet ; — 

That youthful sea travellers may know the ways of 
Ocean ; — 

Is this small book written. 

The little bark being thus launched, may the favouring 
gale of public approval waft it gently onward down the 
stream of time. 



The Departure 1 

The Voyage 2 

At Sea— The Captain's Story— Whaling .... 3 

At Sea — The First Officer's Lesson — Signals .... 4 

At Sea — Sunday — The Sermon 5 

America — ^Brazil — Bio de Janeiro 

At Sea — ^The Doctor's Lecture — ^The Philosophy of a Sea Voyage 7 

Africa — The Cape of Good Hope 8 

At Sea — ^The Second Officer's Sketches — Vessels of all Times 9 

The Desolate Island— St. Paul 10 

At Sea^The Artisfs Ocean Thoughts 11 

Van Dieman's Land — Tasmania 12 

Australia — New South Wales — ^Port Phillip — Gold 13 

New 2Sealand — The Inland Journey 14 

New Zealand— The Treaty— The Feast 15 

Old Times — Heathendom 16 

New Times — ^The Missionary 17 


"Tower'ci cities pleaee un then, 
And the bnpy hum of men." — Mll.TON. 

In a small court, leadiog from the principal thorouglifBTe of 
the City of London, still stands one of those ancient mansions, so 
many of which have of lat« been i-uthleasly pulled down for the 
opening out of new streets. 

The diuing hall, reached by a broad oak staircase, with massive 
carved balustrades, and once the scene of many a gay festivity 
in the days of its former occupier, a princely merchant of the 
olden time, has been for many years converted into a shipbroker's 
office ; and therein, early in the autumn of 18 — , might have 
been seen numerous assistants, inscribing the many papers relating 
to argosies abroad. 


Sailors and officers engaging to serve on board various ships, 
captains of vessels waiting for orders, and merchants' clerks im- 
patiently demanding their bills of lading, and inquiring when the 
letter-bag would close, thronged the room ; while groups of pas- 
sengers, mostly from the rural districts, unheeded by the busy 
officials, gazed listlessly around the spacious apartment, whose 
chief adornments consisted of plans of cabins and large staring 
placards, setting forth that on certain days the good ships White 
Squall, Red Rover, and Washington, would sail for the ports of 
Bombay, Sydney, and New York respectively. One relic only of 
the bygone splendour of the room remained, in the form of a 
noble mdl>le chimney-piece, in the delicate chisellings of whose 
elaborate tracery the accumulated dust of long years slept in 
unmolested repose. 

At length the head clerk of the establishment announced, 
with great emphasis, that the Petrel would positively leave the 
docks on the next day, the 18th, and Gravesend on the 20th ; 
the effect of which statement upon the strained patience of the 
passengers was as the release of a spring; and after a few hur- 
ried sentences the crowd withdrew from the office, some to the 
ship, some to their comfortless temporary lodgings, others to 
make last purchases of sundry small articles for the voyage. 

That evening's post conveyed to all parts of the country fare- 
well words from many a loving daughter and stalwart son, whose 
great brave heart thought it no weakness to blur a mother's letter 
with a tear. 

A tinge of regret accompanied the last look at various objects 
which had now become familiar to the passengers in their weary 
wanderings between the bustling docks and the thronged city. 
The tower, with its old armories, stores of modern trophies, an- 
tique warders, and grim shadowy recollections, the sluggish moat, 
the dim oil lamps glimmering in the quiet darkness, disturbed 
only by the measured tread of the watchful sentinels, and at that 
period its real living lions, boa constrictors, and agile monkeys ; 


the grave, self-sufficient Mint, retiring within its guarded gates 
and iron barriers to perform its mighty office of coiner tfl the 
realm; — the gloomy India warehouses, through whose lofty por- 
tals the passer-by observed the toiling workmen all adust with 
indigo; — the venerable old church of St. Helen's, with mottoed 
porch, " Worship the Lord in the beanty of holiness," standiog 
in an oasis of grass and trees ; a kindly, fresh, though hoary relic 
of past ages, amidst a modern desert of bricks and mortar; — 
the India House itself, with its long, narrow, dark passuges, 
and curious museum, au^estive of the mysterious secrecy of the 
gorgeous east. 

Ramblers on the pier at Gravesend, on the bright cRar still 
moroing of the 20th, observed two distinct classes of passengers 
disembark from one of the smaitly-painted steamers plying on 

the silent highway of Father Thames. The merry, lightly clad 
and lighter hearted visitors tripping on shore, intent upon the 
joyous pleasures of the 'ay; others, with sober thought on their 


brows, and by the weight of unseasonable clothing they toiled 
under, evidencing that the limits of their travels had not been 
arrived at. These latter were instantly surrounded by bawling 
watermen officiously tendering their services to convey voyagers 
to their ships. 

Amphibious Gravesend, whose chief intercourse with the great 
metropolis in our earlier days was by sailing hoys of pleasant 
memory; afterwards, for twenty years, by numerous fleets of 
swift and crowded steam vessels, which in their turn have for the 
most part given place to those overwhelming competitors, the 
railways, of which two now link with bonds of iron the modem 
Babylon to its twenty miles distant outskirt; — well known to all 
visitors for its narrow streets, emerging from the muddy bank of 
the dingy shore, and struggling upwards towards the far-famed 
Windmill- hill. A much changed place, but in all change ever 
affluent in stores of fish, huge quarters of beef, and piles of 
vegetables, sea bedding and clothing, and marine appliances of 
all kinds; with refreshment houses, redolent of savory smoking 
viands, tempting the sturdy seaman, and contesting his choice 
with the liquid good cheer of the " Admiral Benbow " and " Lord 

Yearly did thousands of pallid children watch the gay steamers 
as they darted past the busy wharves of London, and panted 
with hope for the promised trip to pic-nic on the then verdant 
hill, where never failing gipsies allotted liberal fortunes to 
thousands, but never realized their own; and then to tea and 
shrimps in a quiet cottage parlour, at the solicitation of some 
clean-aproned damsel. 

Highly cultivated fields, interspersed with farm homesteads and 
picturesque hop grounds, where in fiill force, throngs of merry 
pickers, collecting the fragrant bitter, with nimble fingers stripped 
the teeming bines, poured their rich pictures upon the eye; while 
far to the east, south, and west ranged the beauteous hills of 
Kent, crowned with woods and copses, whence gush forth streams 


of rich melodj from beaveu's choristers, tuning their merry throats, 

— the evening song of the nightingale, and the morning call of the 

cuckoo, sinking deep into the soul of the deck-pacing mariner. 

" blilho new coiner 1 I have heard, 

I hear thee and rejuice ; 

O cQckoo ! shall I call lliee bird, 

Or bnt a wandering voice." 

Northward, the hroad peaceful meads of Essex, dotted with innu- 
merable lowing cattle, stretched many a mile, the stubble fields 
telling of waving corn well housed; the ThameB as a silver cord 
binding, yet ever separating, the two counties; while scattered 
over the river, moving and at rest, were emigrant ships and fish- 
ing boats, yachts, timber vessels and troop ships, Indiamen and 
coUiere ; the flags of all nations fluttering in the breeie. 

Oa the opposite baak stands old Saxon Tilbury (Tilia, a hus- 

bandman; or Tigel, a tile; and burgh a town; being one of tbe 
earliest tiled cities in England. Tilbury was also the seat of 


Ceadda, a London bishop, who converted tlie East Saxons to 
Christianity, in the seventh centnry,) celebrated in history as 
being the spot where the maiden Queen Elizabeth, and the gay 
and renowned Earl of Leicester, reviewed the English troops 
assembled to repel the threatened invasion of the Spanish Armada. 

Our noble ship lay at anchor in mid-channel, as a racehorse 
held by the bridle, her cumbered decks being rapidly cleared by 
the crew, who seemed to have a magic power of packing away 
an endless supply of baprgage in what appeared an already full hold. 

Meantime inquisitive friends were reporting to passengers the 
result of their inspection of the vessel; commenting upon the 
abundance of the poultry, and the smallness of the pigs, hazard- 
ing an opinion, unaware of seamen^s resources, that no one could 
milk the cow in that mere box ; and declaring it impossible that so 
many sheep could live in such a small boat ; wondering where so 
much luggage would be deposited, how we should all be fed, and 
fearing lest water should fail. 

In one small cabin was an anxious mother, carefully arranging 
her only son's bed ; another resounded with the snvart strokes of a 
hammer, as nails and hooks were being driven into the beams for 
the suspension of all sorts of articles of sea convenience; the 
occupants of others were adjusting, altering, and finally fixing the 
position of boxes and drawers, ingeniously contriving how least 
to trench upon the 

** Cabin'd, cribbed, confined " 

Among the intending voyagers was a minister, who had been 
accompanied thus far by his friends ; and, with emotion, many 
present joined in solemn prayer and the parting hymn, 

**How arc thy servants blest, O Lord I 
How snre is their defence ! 
Eternal wisdom is their guide. 
Their help Omnipotence. 


When by the dreadful tempest borne 
High on the broken wave, 
They know thou art not slow to hear. 
Nor impotent to save. 

The storm is laid, the winds retire, 
Obedient to thy will; 
The sea that roars at thy command, 
At thy command is still. 

In midst of dangers, fears, and deaths. 
Thy goodness well adore; 
We'll praise tfaee for thy mercies past. 
And humbly hope for more." 

Rapdly followed the short click, click, click, of the windlass ; 
the heavy clank of the cable as it slowly trailed inboard, like a 
giant snake made prisoner; the solid decisive orders of the pilot; 
the song and chorus of the seamen as they hauled the sheets home 
to the yards ; the long strained look towards friends on shore and 
in boats, the last wave of hat and kerchief, and the Petrel 

" Walked the water as a thing of life." 



" Over the sea, nrer the sea, 
Lin, what a bonnie bird whigper'c] t« me." — Soko. 

The breeze blew fresh and fair, and the bright sunlight dance 
upon the shimmeriDg water; andss we sailed down the channel, tb 
Tillages dottijig the Terdant hills and valleys of Old Englau 
receded from view, and in the crisp autumn air the' coast lin 
Btood out clear and well defined, the chalk cliffs sparkling bright! 
as a jewelled coronet on ocean's brow. 

The bearings of Start Point were taken and duly registered i 
the log-book, and the men being divided into their respectiv 
watches the Petrel aped swiftly on her way, a tear rushing t 


many an eye as it glanced towards the dim fading island home of 
our childhood — 

" That precious gem set in the silver sea." 

The wind strengthened, and the hushing gurgle of the spray 
brushed up by the vessel gently turning aside the water under 
her bows, rose into a surging swell as the increasing impetus of 
the ship's way gave a larger and larger curve to the parted sea; 
and the wind grew stronger, and yet stronger, and one after 
another the sails were ftirled, and the entries on the log-slate told 
of increasing wind, strong wind, blowing hard, and heavy gales. 

The stormy wind and raging sea contended in grim battle for 
the possession of the good ship; the lightnings darted down in 
fierce forky tongues, and the turbulent thunder rolled in dis- 
tracting roar, volley after volley crashing overhead ; the invisible 
spirits of the air whirred and whizzed and howled through the 
rigging, and the dense riven clouds charged furiously through the 
sky over the pale face of the moon, while at fearful speed the 
Petrel scudded before the driving blast. 

Now we rushed up the huge swell and anon drove down into 
the deep sea valley, the masts rocked and swayed, and the hull 
of the vessel rolled heavily from side to side ; few human sounds 
were heard, save that the vigilant ofiicer of the watch, firmly, in 
short sentences, warned the steersmen to starboard, steady, port, 
or port-hard, as might be necessary to keep the ship straight 
before the wind, lest the heavy sea should strike her on the 
quarter, and cause the gallant bark to broach to ; and the helms- 
men as with strained muscles they grasped and moved the wheel, 
echoed the directions, steady, hard-a-port. Sir. And with all care a 
foaming sea would occasionally roll over the stem, and rushing 
forward, flood the decks, pouring out in torrents through the 

scupper holes. 


The wild waves were hushed into quietude, and there was a 


dead calm, not a ripple disturbed the glassy pool ; the ship lifled 
and sank slowly on the heaving bosom of the sea, the sails fell 
flat, the little vane at the mast-head was motionless, the ensign at 
the peak hung in folds and could not be unfurled, and idly was 
the time spent in whistling and wishing for a breeze ; and the 
sailors were gloomy, for the unheeding passengers had been 
decoying and making captives of some of those seamen's genii of 
good weather, Mother Carey's chickens, as they fluttered about 
the ship, passing and repassing under the stem, running along 
the wares, just touching the surface with their claws. 

** And I had dune a hellbh thing. 
And it would work 'em woe." 

'^ A storm after this,** muttered the helmsman, as he watched the 
birds being caught; " if they (the ofiending passengers) had to go 
out to the weather earing when we are reefing, or to stow top- 
gallant sails when it is blowing hard, they would aloft remember 
all this. What harm have the pretty birds done to them ? " 

Towards evening puffy breaths of air were felt, and they were 
adverse; and the puffs gathered into heavy squalls, under which 
the ship staggered and lay over on her side ; and as the storm 
increased the Petrel laboured sore, and pitched heavily, buffet- 
ing the stout waves with her strong bows, and from mainroyalmast 
head to keel every timber and rope trembled, creaked, and 
groaned; and the thoughtful captain fearing that by longer con- 
tention with the violent gale, damage might be sustained by his 
good ship, hove to, and the vessel drifted before the wind, rising, 
diving, and receding in large curves upon the big waves ; and we 

S3rmpathized with the Petrel in her ease. 


Small jokes were played ; as that upon the old lady of seventy, 
who being told that we were approaching the line, was particularly 
anxious to see it; and being informed that the Petrel would 
cross it in the night, inquired of the chief officer (because she 



knew he would not deceive her), whether the line was not a wood 
fence, with gates at intervals, to allow of ships passing; and he 
seriously answered yes, and if she would look through his teles- 
cope she should see the line. She could not see anything, she 
said, whereupon he proposed to assist her in holding the telescope. 
In doing so he stretched a twine across the glass, and she was 
quite satisfied she had seen the line, at the gates of which he said 
we should arrive about midnight. 

And pigs fell overboard and were recovered, and a robust good 
tempered apprentice had the same misfortune. 

The cry was instantly raised, " Overboard, overboard," but 
who was in that predicament did not immediately appear. One 
gentleman vociferated the names of his two pet dogs to see if they 
were safe; and the mother of a large family hurriedly totalled 
up her progeny, anxious to ascertain that it was not one of her 
children. " It's Charley," said the chief officer, and shouted at 
the top of his voice, " Swim away my boy," waving his cap to 
encourage the lad, while his young fellow apprentice ran sobbing 
and crying about the deck, fearing lest his companion would 
perish before the boat could reach him. 

Meantime the captain had given orders to back the mainyard, 
that the ship's way might be stopped ; and " Man the quarter-boat," 
he cried, and speedily four stout men, with the second-officer, were 
on the sea, pulling vigorously towards the boy. The next few 
minutes were passed in intense anxiety, and every eye was di- 
rected to the small receding speck on the water. They are near 
him ; if he only keep up a minute longer they will have him. 
Grod defend him from sharks ! They are waving to him, they 
have got him, they pull him in, they cheer, we respond, we 
breathe, he is safe; and the boat rowed back to the ship. 

With an invigorating glass of brandy, and an emphatic caution 
from the sententious fatherly commander, the lad was dismissed 
to change his clothes. He remarked to an enquiring passenger. 


that when he saw the mainaail laid to the mast, he knew we were 
stopping for him and would send a boat; his only dread was that 
a shark might seize him before the boat came ; and in reply to an 
expressed fear that he must have imbibed a disagreeable quantity 
of salt water, he naively added, " I was taught to swim with my 
mouth shut." 

The dripping lad sat down upon his sea-chest to mend his dry 
clothes; for, with the carelessness of a sailor, one of his fixed 
principles was, that it was soon enough to repair rents when the 

torn article was required for wear. 

* » * * * 

Little accidents of births occurred, and discussions whether the 
newly bom belonged to Stepney parish ; and ripening friendships 
promising to end in marriage, and arguments on the law of sea- 
weddings; and brief quarrels threatening to result in duels on 
shore — all forgotten at the termination of the voyage, when 
we parted with endless recollections vowed, and strong good 

Scraps of poetry, short romances, latest intelligence, &c. were 
daily found in Neptune's post-box, and read at our dessert, amid 
laughter, merry criticisms, and wonder at the assumed unknown 
authors who thus helped us to pass away the monotonous days; 
and reading, music, song, and games aided to while away our 

Daily the golden sun rose out of the burnished fiery sea, and 
every evening, as it descended in the western sky, the heavens 
were lighted up with gorgeous hues of purple, green, and gold, 
blue and orange, mingling and contrasting with wondrous effects; 
and the fleecy clouds took strange fantastic forms, and fancy 
revelled in the figures of dragons and horsemen, turretted castles, 
quaint old gables, lawns, parks, antlered deer, and feeding flocks. 

We watched the vivid flashings of the harmless sheet light- 
nings darting, playing, and chasing one another, then hiding, 


dashing, and gambolling between cloud and cloudj backwards and 
forwards, as heaven's children at plaj. 

On the still evenings we gazed upwards, admiring the stars as 
thej rained their myriad lights upon us, Arcturus, Orion, the 
Southern Cross, and the Magellan clouds, and involuntarily our 
choicest voices burst out in the noble strains of Haydn's fine 

** The heavens are telling the glory of God.*' 

and we looked downwards upon the phosphorescence of the water 
at the side, stem, or bows of the ship, as we coursed through the 
waves, for we seemed voyaging between two glorious heavens; 
and brilliant and lovely as were the stars above, 

** With scarce inferior lustre gleamed the sea, 
Whose waves were spangled with phosphoric fire; 
As though the lightnings there had spent their shafts, 
And left the fragments glittering on the field." 

We told one another of our past histories, and discoursed of 
future projects as we paced the deck in the intense starlight of 
the tropics. 

Porpoises were grained, and albatrosses caught, and the ele- 
gant nautilus and buoyant Portuguese men-of-war were seen ; and 
now and then we passed a sleepy whale, or were passed by a 
school of snorting grampuses. Occasionally shoals of flying fish 
would start from the water like sparrows from a hedge, not in 
fear, as some suppose, for chasing enemies were not observable; 
rather it seemed an act of joy, as the frisking of a lamb or the 
gallop of a horse let loose in a field, or the grotesque rollicking 
gambols of an ass on a common, from mere exuberance of life; 
and some leaped on board and were cooked and pronounced capital 

There were red letter days in the ship's calendar, days of note ; 
Christmas Day, our captain's birthday, crossing the line day, St. 


Andrew's day, and the day of sighting the land, when with loud 
hurrahs, and three times three, we hailed *' land hoi** and our 
Sundays; all joyous days, distinguished by their champagne, 
bubbling and sparkling, and plum-puddings of large dimensions, 
in addition to our usual good and ample provisions; and every 
Saturday evening, with hearty, true, sailor custom, we drank the 
toast, " Sweethearts and Wives." 

We had our time of dread, during which, at arm's-length for 
hours, we confronted black death ; for on that day we had mys- 
teriously partaken of a subtle poison with our morning meal, and 
before its invisible malignant power, old and young, hale and 
weakly, one by one succumbed. 

The chief officer, in his strong manhood, rolled on his bed in 
agony ; others sat upon deck, gazing in silence upon the blanched 
features and liquid fishy eyes of their companions. 

The black steward exclaimed that he felt "berry funny;" and 
the cabin-boy, through his convulsive hiccups, gasped out that he 
thought he was dying. 

The helmsman could not take his trick at the wheel, for in 
anguish he was writhing in his bunk in the forecastle. 

Some reclined upon the poop in quiet resignation, awaiting the 
issue of that dreamy listlessness and indifference to life which 
crept over us ; while others were conducted to their cabins, where, 
in speechless idiotic stupor, they passed the weary hours. 

At the saloon dinner-table sixteen vacant seats told their own 

sad tale on that memorable day of despair, whose mystery has 

never been unravelled. 

* » * * * 

And we realized the truth of Lamartine's thought, that travel- 
lers live many lives. A new port being approached with all the 
hopes, fears, and uncertainties of youth ; during our stay we make 
acquaintances and form attachments, some place or person be- 
comes part of our being, rooting with minute fibrillse into the 
affections, as a ship nestles into its quicksand bed, and dwells 


unseen deep down therein for evermore; we leave, and in de- 
parting, gaze with strained eye towards lessening spire and tower 
with the last silent look of a friend ; and what more is death than 

To beguile the time and increase our mutual pleasure we had 
weekly assemblies, at which each contributed to the information 
and amusement of the whole company ; with what result some of 
the succeeding chapters may partially disclose. 



" And God created great whales." 

Bible, Ejigliih it 

" It was in my native town of Scarborough," said the captain, 
" that I imbibed the elements of learning, at the knee of an ancient 
matron; who, in consideration of a smaU weekly stipend, intro- 
duced eighteen alumni ihiough the mysterious portals of tLe 
temple of knowledge; six received their lessons simultaneously, 
the other twelve, divided into two brigades, being employed in 
the meantiine in the intellectual operation of faangling, half 
tugging at the rope fastened to one end of the loaded box wliich 
coDstituted the pressing machine, and six thrusting at the oppO' 
site end; and tLis system of industrial education she justified oil 
the principle that — 

" Satan finds some mischief still 
For idle tianda to do." 


When the day. had passed satisfactorily, a handful of sweet- 
meats would emerge from the capacious pocket of the venerable 
dame for distribution amongst the laughing youngsters; and 
oflen on the bright long summer days our studies and mangling 
gave place to a walk around the Castle Hill, or on the fine open 
sandy beach, or to Oliver's Mount, where our ancient friend, 
gathering us about her, would pour into our wondering minds 
strange tales of the old castle, built many hundreds of years ago; 
of Gaveston, King Edward's favourite, who was starved out of 
the strong place and obliged to surrender; of the curious Pil- 
grimage of Grace, in the reign of great King Henry, on which 
occasion a large army of enthusiasts, preceded by priests, carry- 
ing crosses, and banners bearing devices of crucifixes, and the 
name of Jesus on them, had in vain striven to drive out the 
governor and his troops ; of the siege of the grey old towers by 
Cromwell, to whose all-conquering sturdy troopers the partisans 
of King Charles opened the gates ; and in these latest wars she 
told us her ancestors had borne their part. Outgrowing the 
limits of her sphere, the next educational functionary whose care 
I underwent was so much more interested in the discussion of 
politics at the '^ Bear and Ragged Staff" than in the performance 
of his scholastic duties, that my progress would have been small, 
even had death not clipped the thread of my father's life ; whence- 
forward a rough-hewn, but good-natured uncle undertook to 
induct me into the duties of a sea-life, and began his instruc- 
tions by boxing my ears whenever I manifested symptoms of 
sickness, to divert attention from the stomach, or, as he nautically 
termed it, give me another " point of departure." 

My sea career was soon temporarily suspended ; for, as on one 
oGca^on, we were beating down the English channel, our ship 
deeply laden with coals, we incautiously stood over too near to the 
French coast, were chased by a fast-sailing privateer, the ship 
taken, and the crew made prisoners. 

At first my boyish alarm was great, but the many kindnesses 


received from the ladies connected vitb the piisoB offi 
■peedily re-auured me. 

Duriog our captivity tlie senior officen instructed the you 
of the crew, and thus my general Mtd professional education ^ 
greatly advantaged by this compulsory reaidence on shore. 

' Two long yean were spent in exile, during which, althc 
scantily clothed, almost shoeless and indifferently fed, ve 
formed many a weary march from prison to prison, the plac 
our confinement being continually changed. The dark-i 
daughters of France, compa.<!8ionating our forlorn condition 
refreshed us with bowls of milk and rosy apples, accompa 
vrith sympathetic uttcrings: " Paurres mfltelota Angl^, pan 
gar9ons Anglais." At the expiration of this period, on 
occasion of a cartel or exchange of prisoners we were liberi 
and in the course of my after wanderings I visited most of 
bustling crowded ports of England, the burning West I 
islands, with their swarthy negro labourers ; the magnificent 
sprinkled harbour of Eio de Janeiro, the hot City of Pah 
Calcutta, the low sandy shores of Africa, the timber port 
Canada, and experienced the stormy seas and rough weatht 
an Archangel voyage late in the season; at length I began 
whale fishing life, and made the beautiful port of Sydney 
resting place when not cruising in my vessel, watching 
monsters of the deep. Respecting these gigantic beings of wl 
so little is known I will now give you such information as m 
whaling voyages have enabled me to accumulate. 

The great whale fishery may be divided into two sectiot 
the object of chace being in one case the sperm whale, and in 
other the black, common, or Arctic whale, and in explaining 
difference I will commence with the sperm whale. 

The sperm whale (physeter macrocephalus) inhabits the c 
ocean of both eastern and western hemispheres, but abounds ■ 
in the iKirm seas of the globe. These swimming beasts' ao 
times attain to the length of eighty feet-, the head, which is ne 
one-third of the whole length of the body, being from eigh 


nine feet in depth, and from five to six feet broad, and the cir- 
cumference of the body about thirty-six feet. The sperm whale 
has a roundish tubercle in front over the eyes, called the bunchy 
and a rounded lump of fat behind, called the hump, continuing 


in a ridge to the tail. The males are larger than the females. 
Naturalists class whales with mammalia; all the order of ce- 
tacea, or whales, breathing in the same manner as do land 
mammalia, by means of lungs, and not by gills as fishes. The 
ordinary passage of the air is through the nose (the human 
species alone breathe through the mouth), and the membranous 
portion of this organ forms one canal, but in the bony part in 
most animals it is divided into two ; in the sperm whale, however, 
there is only one orifice, and what is termed the spout is formed 
by the expired air being forcibly ejected through this blowhole. 
A large whale will make sixty or seventy respirations during the 
time it remains above the surface of the water, a period of about 
ten minutes, and the aeration of the blood thus effected is suf- 
ficient to allow of its existing under water nearly an hour. 
Whales also suckle their young like land mammalia. 

The heart is very large, and the aorta or vessel conveying the 
blood of the whale from the heart is sometimes twelve inches in 
diameter, propelling forward ten or twelve gallons at a stroke. 
The roof of the mouth, the tongue, and teeth, are white, and 
glisten in the water, and the throat of the full-grown sperm whale 
is sufiiciently large to allow of the passage of a man; the lower 
jaw only is furnished with teeth, and such may sometimes be seen 
exhibited in shop-windows covered with ornamental carvings, 
executed by sailors for amusement. The upper-jaw has sockett' 


or excavations for the reception of these lower teeth when tlie 
mouth is closed. Although sperm whales occasionalljr consume 
other fish thej feed principally upon the sepia octopus, cutde 
fish, or squid, as seamen term it ; and this food is so nutritioas 


as to enable the whale to deposit a layer of fat beneath the 
skin from eight to fourteen inches in thickness, which fet 
renders the animal buoyant, and preserves its warmth, and 
hence is not inaptly termed the blanket by whalers. In 
the interior and upper part of the head is a large cavity 
containing from 200 to 500 gallons of a thin oil, lighter than 
water, called "head matter,'' concreting after death into a granu- 
lated substance. Placed in hair bags, submitted to strong presr 
sure, melted and boiled with a weak solution of potash and in 
alcohol, then cast into moulds, this head matter becomes the 
crystalline substance known as spermaceti. 

"When unmolested, the sperm whale travels at the leisurely 
pace of about four miles an hour, being propelled by the tail, 
which,, in all animals of the whale order, is horizontal ; but if 
alarmed or woimded it urges its way through the water at a speed 


of twenty miles an hour, with a peculiar surging motion, or what 
sailors call going " head out." This horizontal position, together 
with the great size of the tail enable the whale to rise and descend 
through the water with ease and rapidity. 

The sperm whale is noted for a peculiar action called breaching ; 
the animal in its rapid ascent from the deep sea can impart to 
its huge bulk an impetus sufficient to project the body almost out 
of the water, but whether this is done to shake off adhering 
parasites, or in sport, has not been satisfactorily ascertained. 

On the look-out man at the mast-head perceiving the blowing 
of a whale, he announces the fact to those on deck, by crying out 
" There she spouts!" and this arousing call creates intense excite- 
ment. " Where away?" shouts the officer of the watch, and the 
direction being indicated, the boats are instantly lowered, and 
putting forth all their strength the men row towards the animal 
with great speed and caution. The boats are about twenty-seven 
feet long, sharp at both ends ; in one end is fitted a short block or 
stump, the loggerhead, around which the line is turned when the 
harpoon has been made fast to a whale. A boat's crew consists 
of six persons — four rowers, a headsman anda steerer; the heads- 
man pulls the fifth or bow-oar until the whale is approached, then 
rising from his seat he darts the harpoon with all his power into 
the floating animal, and immediately changes places with the boat- 
steerer, whose duty it is to pierce the whale with lances. 

The whale, on being wounded, sounds or descends to a great 
depth, carrying with him the harpoon, and drawing after him a 
strong small rope or line attached to the instrument, and which 
is allowed to run out from the tubs in the bottom of the boat 
wherein it lays in regular coils, and sometimes more than two 
miles of line will be thus expended. On rising to the surface to 
breathe the whale is again attacked with lances, imtil exhausted 
by the loss of blood, which is frequently thrown up from the 
blowhole, the infuriated animal no longer having the strength to 


descend, swims about violently on the surface, and tracing dark 
crimson cuires in the water, doth 

"The niultitadinoiu sess mcamRdine, 
Making the green one red," 
and lashing the sea into foam, and rolling over and over in the 
intensity of his agony, eventually turns upon hia side and dies. 

With an instrunient termed a spade the fat, blanket, or blubber 
is cut into long strips, two or three feet broad, round and round 
the anima], and the fnt bting melted and boiled in proper Teeseb, 
termed " try-pots," the oil is stored away in casks, the scraps 
or crisp membranous portions being used as fuel. The matter 
obtained from the head cavity, the case, forms the spermaceti 
of commerce. 

This species (Balena mysticetns) has not the clumsy appearance 
of the sperm whale, for although measuring sixty feet in length, 
the head of the black whale is proportionally much smaller than 
that of the sperm species. 

It possesses two blowers situated iar back on the head, each 
blower or spout being covered with a valve; the gullet is small, 
as also are the eyes, which are placed near the angle of the 

This species is principally fonnd in the colder seas, although it 
is not unfrequently met with in warm latitudes. 

The female is latter than the male. 

The Arctic whale has no teeth in either jaw, but it possesses a 


curious substitute ; the upper jaw, which is narrow, being fur- 
nished with horny laminae descending from the palate, and 
varying in proportional breadth and length in the different 
varieties ; and the purpose of this apparatus is to form an efficient 
strainer for the small marine animals, which constitute its food; 
scooping up a large quantity into its mouth by means of the large 
lower jaw, they are entrapped and retained by its being closed, 
the water exuding through the fringes of the whalebone plates. 
The largest pieces of whalebone sometimes measure thirteen feet 
in length, and the number of pieces varies from 500 to 600. 

The article of whalebone, so well known in commerce, is applied 
to purposes in which lightness and elasticity are desirable, as 
whip-handles, walking-sticks, umbrella-rods, and ladies' stays. 
The oil of the black whale, common or train oil, is not more than 
one-fourth the value of sperm oil. The European mode of 
catching this kind of whale is similar to that adopted in the 
sperm fishery, already described ; amongst the Esquitnaux, how- 
ever, the mode of killing these northern whales is rather peculiar. 

Manning a large boat, a chosen man of the tribe is appointed 
harpooner, a number of small canoes, with one man in each, being 
in attendance. Selecting his prey, the harpooner drives his 
weapon into the animal; an inflated seal skin attached to the 
other end of the harpoon, acting as a drag upon the whale, tends 
to exhaust its strength. Chased and harassed by the men in the 
small canoes armed with similar instruments, the wounded whale 
is at last exhausted, and dies from loss of blood. 

A successful harpooner is honoured, after the day's sport, with 
a blue line drawn across the face over the bridge of the nose, and 
with great rejoicings the tribe feasts upon the spoil. 

Amongst the inhabitants of the arctic seas I ought to mention 
the narwhal, known also as the sea unicorn ; this species of cetacea 
possessing that famous horn which figures on the forehead of the 
heraldic unicorn, a supporter in the arms of England. Although 
the narwhal is not now met with on the English coast, yet from 


its numerous fossil remains found in the geological formation, 
called the Suffolk crag, it appears that England has more right 


to assume this primeval animal in its arms than is generallj 

The teeth of many animals take the form of tusks, these in the 
narwhal are reduced to a single tooth, and the growth of even 
this one tooth is restricted to the male animal : the right tusk is 
found in quite a rudimentary state, the left one only being developed. 
It seems to be intended for defence, and is implanted about 
fourteen inches in the socket, tapering gradually from the base to 
the apex, and sometimes measuring ten feet in length and four 
inches in diameter at the exit from the nose. The exterior of 
this long horn is spirally striated, the ridges winding from within, 
forwards, upwards, and to the left. 

The narwhal is generally from twenty to thirty feet long, and 
the tail, as in other species of the whale tribe, is horizontal. 

I will finish this story of whales and whaling by narrating an 
adventure which nearly cost me my life. Having cruised on my 
last voyage for some time without my usual success, I bore up for 
Torres Straits, believing that the sperm whales having been 
harassed in the open Pacific, had sought quietude amongst the 
Indian islands. 

Anchoring in a deep sheltered cove, at the head of which a 
sparkling stream tracked its joyous way through dense groves of 
palms, whose outer shadows bathed in the transparent sea, we lay 


there some time replenishing our stock of fresh water, and barter- 
ing knives, prints, blankets, nails, axes, saws, and other English 
articles for yams, pumpkins, cocoa-nuts, pigs, and poultry. 

Observing one day that the canoes alongside were more nume- 
rous than before, and that no women or children were present as 
usual, I enjoined the oflficer in charge of the boat, which I 
despatched for the last load of fresh water, to keep his attention 
directed to the ship, and should the ensign be run up, to return 

Shortly after the boat's departure I noticed that my black 
acquaintances were holding a consultation, and my suspicion 
being excited, I directed the ensign to be hoisted; the sharp eyes 
of the islanders quickly detected the responding movement of the 
boat, and judging that the time for the attack had come while we 
were divided, they rose upon the crew ; I was myself surroimded 
and felled to the deck with a club, stunned and left for dead. 

On recovering my senses I learnt that for the saving of our 
lives we were indebted to one of the men who had the piesence of 
mind, on the instant of the attack, to jump below and cut the 
cords by which two English dogs were tied to prevent injury to 
the natives, with whom I was desirous of trading. 

In a moment, urged on by the sailor, the two dogs bounded 
upon deck biting many of the blacks, frightening all; some 
hastily retreated over the side into the canoes, the rest leaped into 
the water and swam to the shore. 

The ship being thus cleared we immediately weighed anchor, 
and set all sail, keeping at sea until recovered from our wounds, 
and ended by making a successful voyage. 

Having been absent from the mother country many years, I 
returned to visit my native land once more, sold my oil profitably, 
and am now owner and commander of the good ship Petrel. 

" Behold the marks of this fray," said the captain, and raising 
the hair which covered the wound, disclosed a broad deep scar 
more than two inches in length. 





" England expccU ever; mnn to do bii dut^r." 

fielion't iatt ligaaL 

The vessel drifted as a straw upon the waters; the n 
the oighC which had settled upon her as a profuse perspiration. 
rapidly disappeared before the rising sua, and a hcA drjness 

Sleepless with the heat, the passengers rose at dawn, to watch 
the sun emerge from the sea, and pacing the deck barefoot, par- 
ticipated in the coolness induced by the customary earl^ deck 

The grateful bath followed, amidst which luxurious enjoyment 
tl)e adventurous overside swimmers were suddenly deterred firom 
their indulgence by a shout from the maintop to look out on the 
starboard side; instantly all eyes were turned in the direction 
mentioDed, where lo, at about twenty yards distance the back fin 
of a steadily approaching shark was observed above the snr&ce 
of the water. 


at, and in a few moments the strong 
thick shark-book was exhumed from its place of dtiposit, with its 
accompanying two feet of chain (if a hempen line were used within 
reach of the jaws it would be easily severed), and a moss of fat 

pork, three pounds in weight, being attached, the bait was thrown 

into the sea astern. The monster eyeing the tempting morsel 
slowly swam up to it and thrust it aside with his nose, then 
curved round and receded; a Hicker in the distance showed tliat 
the hungry brute had turned ; be again approached the bait which 
be once more pushed away, then retreated as before; another flip 
of the silvery ocean told us that the temptation of the bait had 
overcome his caution, and the hated fish turning upon his side 
greedily swallowed the hook, bait, and part of the chain, the 
beauteoua pilot fish which accompany the shark, hovering over its 
head as so many guiding spirila, hurrying hither and thither in 
consternation at his convulsive writhing. 

Contrary to the advice of the seamen, the passengers, delighted 
with the success of the esperimcnt, instantly hauled up the 
infuriated fish to the stern, not mindful of the difficulty which 
still existed of getting the bulky body inboard, even when the 
bead had been raised to the height of the taffrail. 

The difficulty did not exist long, for with a stroke of his tail, 
which broke the cabin windows, aided by a violent effort of the 


muscular jaws, and jerk of the body, the massive weight of the 
large fish, fourteen feet long, was sufficient to straighten the 
thick hook into the form of a large spike, and falling down into 
the water, he left us to watch the blood stained track as he swifUj 

Sharks were thenceforward allowed to swallow the bait, and a 
running noose being passed round the small of the tail and drawn 
tight, thej were hauled up over the ship^s side, and the head and 
tail being adroitly severed by our expert butcher, the fish were 
then publicly dissected. 

The sun rose higher and hotter, and for a few hours daily at 
this period of the voyage we were shadowless beings. 

For the mere sake of employment the captain worked out the 
longitude by observation, and daily added another to the many 
marks which hovering around the same spot on the chart, 
indicated that we had long unsuccessfully coquetted with the 

The children found amusement in running beyond the awning 
and glueing themselves to the deck with the pitch, which, bubbling 
and boiling, exuded from between the planks and adhered to their 
shoes ; while the sailors looked over the bulwark out towards the 
horizon and whistled for a breeze. 

The ship had not steerage way, the powerless rudder only 
trembled, and the guide chains rattled with the slow heaving of 
the sea; the sails hung motionless and fiat, save when the 
undulation of the ocean, as a vast animal respiring, caused them 
to fiap heavily against the masts and rigging. 

The consolation of society remained, for twelve ships were in 
sight on the glassy pool, to each of which in turn the others made 
graceful obeisance, then slugglishly, as though tired with the effort, 
drifted round, indifferently presenting either stem, stem, or broad- 
side; each was 

** As idle as a painted ship 
Upon a painted ocean.'* 


The chief officer suggested a conversation with some of the 
neighbouring ships, and speedily the bag of flags and signals 
was brought upon deck and the ensign run up to the peak. 

The salute was answered bj the nearest ship hoisting her 
ensign, showing that she also was a British vessel; then certain 
s^ts of small flags were successively exhibited, inquiring '' What 
ship is that ? Where from ? Whither bound ? How long out, 
&c. ? " Which being duly replied to, similar inquiries were made 
by the neighbouring vessel, and responded to on our part. Con-*- 
versations of the like character were carried on with several of the 
ships within signal distance, and the intelligent chief officer in 
reply to the questions of the inquisitive passengers, promised 
that at the gossip hour of eve he would explain the nature and 
use of naval flags and signals. 

Sundown moderated the temperature, and assembling in the 
saloon after tea we found it had been decorated by our chief 
officer with signal flags, the union jack and ensign, blue Peter 
and burgee being tastefully grouped together; unfortunately for 
the national honour the royal standard could only be represented 
by a common neck-kerchief belonging to one of the seamen, 
having this gay design printed upon it. 

'' I will now," said the speaker, '^ fulfil my promise as well as I am 
able, and first must refer to some historical points connected with 
the subject, and then will explain the diflerences which exist 
among those flags and signals now in use, and the reasons for 
the distinctions. 

" Our good friend, the artist, has promised to tell us more about 
the royal standard and the history of that part of the subject than 
my sea-life has enabled me to become acquainted with ; I will 
therefore confine my remarks to the flags in ordinary use." 

The Union Jack and Ensign. 

This national banner of England is of religious origin. 

It was the practice of ancient nations to place themselves under 


the protection of some saint, and Si. Geoi^ was the worthj 
adopted by England, and his banner became the national baooer 
of the coimtry. 

Tradition, or rather perhaps conjecture, asserts that the English 
ensign owes its origin to tlie fact that the Emperor ConstantiiK 
adopted a red cross on a white flag as his banner, and announced 
that whoever fought under this flag would always be successfbl; 
and he having been born in Britain the flag was adopted by the 
ancient English. Another legend states that Joseph, son of 
Joseph of Arimathea, introduced Christianity into Britain, and 
when dying drew the figure of a cross with his blood. 

However it may have arisen, the Saxon banner was a plain red 
cross on a white ground, and whatever other flags were present 
this was always foremost, and the red cross is still the most con- 
spicuous portion of our colours. 

These crosses were very various in their character: that of St 
George was composed of ti^'o pieces, respectively perpendicular 
and horizontal + ; those of St. Andrew and St. Patrick were 
diagonal, the parts inclining from left to right and from right to 
left X . Eespecting the cross of St Andrew, we are told that 
Achaius king of the Scots, and Hungus king of the Picts joined 
their forces to oppose Athelstan king of the Saxons, and address- 
ing themselves to God and their patron, St. Andrew, as a token 
that they were heard, the white saltire cross upon which St. Andrew 
suffered martyrdom appeared in the blue Armament, which so 
animated them that they defeated the Saxons. After the victory 
they went in procession to the church where the arm of St 
Andrew was kept as a relic, to thank Grod and the Apostle, pur- 
posing in all time coming to use on their ensigns the cross of St 
Andrew, a white x cross on a blue banner. 

King James the First, soon afler his accession, directed that 
this cross of St. Andrew, the national banner of Scotland, should 
be united with the English red cross ; and on the occasion of the 
Union with Ireland it was ordered by proclamation of George the 

THE FIRST officer's LESSON. — SIGNALS. 31 

Third, dated the Ist January, 1801, that the union flag shall 
be, " azure, the crosses saltire of St. Andrew and St. Patrick, 
quarterly per saltire counterchanged argent and gules, the latter 
'fimbriated of the second, surmounted by the cross of St. George 
of the third, fimbriated as the saltire," which, stripped of techni- 
cality or heraldic jargon, means that the field or ground shall be 
blue, superimposed by the white diagonal cross of St. Andrew; 
and upon that again the narrower red diagonal cross of St. 
Patrick, and overlaying these the erect red cross of St. George, 
with a white fringe or border. 

It is stated in the proclamation that whereas by ancient usage 
the royal ensigns, flags, jacks, and pendants difler from those in 
use by his Majesty's subjects, to more distinctly notify and set 
forth the same, his Majesty by and with the advice of his privy 
council thereby charged upon all masters of merchant vessels to 
wear the ensign set out in the margin of the proclamation, viz., 
the red flag with the Union Jack in the upper comer, next the 
mast, and not to wear any other ensign nor any pendant whatso- 
ever, nor to hoist any flags, jacks, pendants, or colours made in 
imitation of his Majesty's flags. 

It is further directed that vessels with letters of mark or 
reprisals, besides the colours worn by merchant ships, shall wear 
a red jack with an union jack described in a canton at the upper 
corner thereof next the staff" ; also that such vessels as may be 
employed by the undermentioned government departments, viz : — 
Commissioners of the Navy ; Ordnance ; Navy Victualling Dej)art- 
ment; Customs; Excise; Transport Service; shall wear a red 
jack with a miion jack in a canton at the upper comer thereof 
next the staff", and in the other part of the said jack shall be 
described the seal used in such of the respective offices afore- 
said, by which the said ships or vessels shall be employed. 

And by an act of parliament, dated 22nd May, 1834, it is 
enacted that the master or other person in charge of a ship on 


board of which the above proclamation may be infringed shall be 
liable to a penalty not exceeding £500, recoverable by suits in 
the Admiralty Couits. 

It fiirther authorizes any officer of the royal navy to enter on 
board any ship, vessel, or boat, hoisting, wearing, or carrying the 
colours prohibited by the said proclamation, and to seize and take 
away the same, and the same shall thereupon become forfeited. 

I may add here that an admiral carries his flag at the main- 
mast, a vice-admiral at the fore-mast, and a rear-admiral at the 
mizen-mast, and that the lord high admiral, or commissioners of 
the admiralty, wear a flag with the device of a white anchor on 
a red ground or field. 

The Blue Peter 

is a plain square blue flag, with a square yellow centre, and 
signifies that the vessel upon whose mast it is displayed is about 
to saiL 

The Burgee 

is generally a plain flag of one colour, with the ship's name 
in letters of another colour, as a white flag with red letters, or 
a red flag with white letters, according to the taste and fancy of 
the master or owner. 

I will now, said the chief officer, give some explanation of the 
signals we so freely used this morning. A clear simple plan of 
conununicating from one ship to another when weather or circum- 
stances prevented a boat being sent out, and the distance was 
beyond the reach of the human voice or speaking trumpet, had 
long been desired, and the supplying of this want is due to the 
ingenuity of the novelist. Captain Frederick Marryat, who, in 
1817, published the system of signals now almost universally 

The flags and pendants used are seventeen, including the union 
jack. They are — 


a. Ten flags, representing the nine numerals and cypher. 

b. The union jack. 

c. The first, second, and third distinguishing pendants, to be 
suspended over the numeral flags, or at some other mast-head, 
when the number indicating the name of a merchant ship is 

d. The rendezvous flag, which is hoisted over the flags indi- 
cating the number of the name of a port, cape, &c. 

e. Telegraph flag, to point out that the number signals below 
it refer to some words to be found in part 6 of the signal book. 

f. Numeral pendant, or limitation flag, hoisted over the numeral 
flags, points out that the number does not refer to the guide or 
signal key, l)ut that the numbers are to be understood in their 
ordinary sense, merely as numbers ; thus, the numeral flags repre- 
senting 21, if hoisted without this pendant, would refer to part 5 
of the signal-book, but if exhibited with this pendant would indicate 
simply 21, and would probably be an answer to such a question 
as — ^What latitude or longitude? — or. How many days out? — How 
many passengers? &c. 

A signal book is used in conjunction with these flags, and is 
divided into six parts. 

1st Part. Contains a list of English men-of-war, and such 
ships would hoist the union jack over the number. 

2nd Part. List of foreign men-of-war, which would hoist their 
national ensign. 

3rd Part. List of names of merchant ships divided into three 
sections, and these would hoist the first, second, or third distin- 
guishing pendant over the numbers, to direct attention to the 
particular section of the third part of the book in which the 
telegraphing vessel's name must be looked for. 

4th Part. Lists of ports, headlands, lighthouses, &c., and 
when any number in this list is exhibited the chequered or ren- 
dezvous flag is hoisted above the numeral flags. 




5 th Part. Cbiisistsofsentences suitable for nuuinereqriiiementB; 
the nomeral flags onlj are in this case hoisted where best seen. 

6th Part. Contains a long list of single words, a kind of dic- 
tionary; and the tricoloored flag, called a telegraph flag, is in 
this case hoisted above the numbers referring to the word. 

The numbers in the lists are consecutiye, except that those 
requiring two of the same figure are omitted; thus, there are no 
Nos. 11, 22, &c. When, however, it is absolutely necessary to 
repeat the figure, as sometimes in giving the latitude, longitude, 
or similar statements, the repetition is indicated by hoisting lii| 
first distinguishing pendant uruJUr the numeral flag ; and what 
such a number as 101 is required to be indicated, the nuiiMnl 
flag 1 and cypher flag are suspended, with the second distill* 
guishing pendant under them, to show that the second above is to 
be understood as repeated; 111 is shown by hoisting the numeral 
flag 1 with the^r^^ and second distinguishing pendants. 

The 1st distinguishing pendant by itself is affirmative; the 2nd 
pendant is negative ; and the numeral flag by itself means atten- 
tion, or about to answer. You probably observed this matBr 
ing, continued the chief officer, that I first hoisted the ensigni 
which was replied to by our neighbour. I then looked into part 
5, under " sentences," and selected the number opposite the ques- 
tion. What ship? 

Our friend, seeing these flags, no doubt looked into his book, 
and against the number found the question; and to answer it 
inspected the list of ships in part 3, and selecting the number 
indicating the name of his own ship, hoisted the numeral flags 
with the proper pendant above, in order to tell us in which sec- 
tion of the book to look. 

Our next question was similarly sought in part 5, Where 
from? to which he replied by the proper niunber, placing the 
chequered rendezvous flag above the numeral flag, from which 
we instantly knew, almost before the signals were up at the mast 
head, that it was the name of a place he was communicating, to 
find which it was necessary to look into part 4. 


THE FIBST officer's LE8S0K. — SIQHALS. 8ft 

Havit^ given the principle upon which these ligDttU aot, I 
must refer jou to the special book on the subject for forther 

It may not be out of place here to state tJiat on the oocacion of 
a death or monnuag ve do not hoist the ensign to the top of the 
mast, but leave it at some distance below ; this is termed " half 
mast " high. A ship is also put in mourning by punting a broad 
bloe stripe all round her sides. A ship in distress wanting aid 
reverses her ensign, placing the union jack downvrards, which 
may onr good ship never see. 

I may also, conldnned the officer, relate a little incident which 
occurred some years ^;o, disclosing the early naval predilections 
of the Qneen. 

In early youth, Her Majesty, then Princess Victoria, resided 
at Ram^ate for a season, for the benefit of the sea air, and while 
there sometimes took walking exercise npon the pier. 

On one of tbeae oecasiMu, ha tffa^ja^Ji Ijh&jiuu^ ksiv*-^ :a« 
captUDi of the few Tca«ds hiivc in iht bariywr dia^ytid aZ a^ 


flags they could muster, in honour of £ngland*8 future queen 
Arriying, in the course of her ramble, opposite the little vesse 
on which I was then employed, the royal lady suddenly stopped 
her quick nautical eye having observed 

** A banner with a strange device;" 

and thereupon, tripping on board, she politely addressed the cap 
tain, " Please, Sir, will you tell me what flag that is," pointing 
to a small one flying at our main ; ^^ I know all the rest, but thi 
is new to me." " Your Royal Highness," replied the captain, " i 
is the private signal flag I hoist when nearing the African port to 
which I generally trade, that my consignee may kno^w what shi] 
is entering the bay." 

" I thank you. Sir," said the little Princess ; and, her curiodt] 

satisfied, she trotted ofl*, and continued her walk. 

• • • • • 

A loud clapping of hands testified to the interest the chief office 
had excited; and, having a. fine voice, he was solicited to sbj 
Campbell's noble song — 

** Ye mariners of England ! 
That guard our native seas; 
Whose flag has brayed a thousand years, 
The battle and the breeze! 

Your glorious standard launch again 
To match another foe! 
*And sweep through the deep, 
While the stormj winds do blow; 
While the battle rages loud and long, 
And the itonny winds do blow. 

The spirits of your fathers 
Shall start fix)m every wave I — 
For the deck it was their field of fame, 
And ocean was their grave. 

Britannia needs no bulwarks. 

No towers along the steep; 

Her march is o*er the mountain waves, 

Her home is on the deep. 

THE FffiST officer's LESSON. SIGNALS. 37 

The meteor flag of England 
Shall jet terrific bum ; 
Till dangers troubled night depart. 
And the star of peace return." 

The aroi^sed enthusiasm of the company displayed itself in a 
jubilate of hurrahs, followed by the national anthem; and soon 
after, the stirring strains of " Rule Britannia," arising from the 
forecastle, plainly told that down there amongst the crew were 
hearts of oak ready to follow 

*' Where Blake and mightj Nelson ielL*' 

Note. — The British Goyemment has recently issued a new and more 
extensive code of Sea Signals. 

The principle consists in assigning to each of eighteen flags a letter of 
the alphabet, leaving out the vowels, such consonants however being em- 
ployed as signs, not as letters of words. 

Making use of Manyaf s flags, with slight variations, and four or five 
flags in addition, no less than 78,642 distinct signals may be exhibited, none 
requiring more than four flags to be hoisted at the same time. 

Page 32, line 14.— For "yellow** read "white" centre. 




■* 0>er bU the face of eanb 
Hsin ocean flow'd, doi idle, bat witb waim B 

Prolific hnmonr." Hilivm. ■ 

Imfeu-ed by the pleasant trade breezes cmr ship glided eua£i] I 
tbrotigli the smooth waters. At aqoarter to eleven o'clock diebdl ] 
rang for divine service, the ensign being thrown over the capstM 
which served as a reading desk, extra stools from the cabin tiA 
a few raised planks, in addition to the fixed seats on deck, affoid- 
ing accommodation for the audience. 

The burnishing up of the motley group for these religions 
aerrices was amusing to notice — the superior attire of the gentle- 
men, the more decorative toilette of the ladies, the clean duck 
trowsers of the seamen who, as they came on to the quarter-dec^T 
displayed vaiying attempts at distinction with their many hned 
neck-kerchiefa and emphatically brushed hair. 

Six bells (eleven o'clock) struck by three sharp quick tinkles 
and three slower heavier strokes, indicated that the hour of wor- 


ship had arrived, then perfect silence and attention ensued, the 
only wandering eyes on board being those of the helmsman 
alternately watching the compass and the topgallant sails, his 
orders being to mind his weather helm, and keep the sails easy 
full daring prayers, and the chief officer occasionally glancing to 
windward to espy any sudden squall stealing over the waters. 

The notes of the Morning Hymn rising from the mixed voices 
were mellowed by the surrounding sea. 

**Hark! how it grows more strong; — 
And now it steals along, 
Like distant bells upon the lake at eve.'* 

The lessons. Genesis, chapter 1, and Psalm 107, and prayers 
ended, the minister annoimced his text, Psalm 104, verse 25th — 

^'This great and wide sea.** 

and continued — ^All scripture is given by inspiration of Gk)d, and 
is profitable for rebuke, exhortation, and instruction in right 
mindedness; and the humble attentive soul, however disturbed 
and distressed, may always find therein rest, consolation, and 
light, for truth, duty, God, beam forth from every page, even as 
this overliving sea, whether tempest-tossed or placid, imceasingly 
reflects a bright joyous track, direct from every watching eye to 
yon glorious sun above us. 

In the spirit of the principle thus laid down, it has appeared to 
me that I could not more suitably assist your meditation on this 
our first service on shipboard, and cause us to feel at home with 
one another and with the surrounding element, than by a short 
review of those scripture passages whei;ein the great ocean, upon 
which we are being wafted far from our native land, occupied the 
writer's mind either as the direct subject of his pen or by way of 
illustration; and I shall endeavour to draw therefrom, as we glide 
along the sacred page, some lessons which in after life may be 
attended with mental profit whenever our present voyage may 
recur to your thoughts. 

40 MT nRfrr totaoe. 

The WaUrt of Life, — " This greftt and wide •em;" — thciDper 
vailiiifi: cliaractiT of water, and the origin of its tg^ming life, m 
9iii forth ill ti^rw*, noble, simple Umgnage in the opening of tiie 
worl(i*H history; nnd how enlarged does the meaning of oorfint 
h'liMon l)ecomc when read in the light of the investigatioDS of 

I)<*f(ire man was created the waters of the globe were crowded 
with living beings, so numerous that the shelly corerings of the 
friiii b<)(ii(.'N of oTiv small section now compose thick layers of the 
<Mirth*M cru8t, known as the chalk formation; the Almig% 
architect i)f the imiverse causing the globe in its progress to its 
present static of a suitable home for man to assume the condidom 
of fit rc;s*i(lcnce for innumerable forms of y^;etable and aniiwl 
life?. And to such as may fear lest their reverence for the 
script un^H might be placed in jeopardy by the encouragement of 
this enlarged iKslief in the antiquity of Grod's works upon the 
4!arth, W(i would say, " Ye do err not knowing the Scriptures, 
nuithor the ])Ower of God, with whom a thousand years are as one 

And UH the eartli's sphericity audits motion were equally at 
the time of their announcement contrary to the religious opinions 
of the age, and yet arc now admitted and received by the most 
devout., «() tluj doctrine of the gradual building up of this ever 
fresh and verdant home for man will be ere long cordially em- 
bra(iod by the good, who will then read with a deeper feeling of 
loving awe, that ^* Of old hatli he laid the foundations of the eartL'^ 

The inorganic remains of the multitudes of creatures formerly 
existing on the globe now inhabited by man, afford intensely 
interesting objects for study by the microscope, which has opened 
to our view another world of the Creator's wonderful works, and 
a very slight acquaintance with the discoveries of that instrument 
causes the inquiry, " Where is the dust that has not been alive?'' 
to cease to bo regarded as a poetical exaggeration. And if the 
inspection of a beautiful simple flower gave courage to the lonely 


traveller in the African desert, teaching him a lesson of the all 
pervading present providence of God, so should the studies of the 
geologist enforce the great idea of its corUinuity. <'To day, 
yesterday, and for ever the same." ** I ain that I am." " With 
me there is no variableness or shadow of turning." 

The Waters of Death, — ^Pause we now over the 8th chapter of 
Genesis, and note with what quiet grandeur the event of the 
Deluge is related. 

True, the whole account has been scoffed at as improbable, nay 
as impossible, as a myth, an invention of the writers of the 
Scriptures; the objectors forgetting that the great object of the 
Bible is not to give details of natural philosophy, but to instruct 
in moral duty; nevertheless, whenever the relation of great 
events was necessary to the purpose of the writers, the narratives 
were artlessly, boldly, woven into the texture of the history, 
though the delineations might be sometimes only dimly given, 
just as a painter indicates distant objects, however grand 
and important, by a few suggestive strokes, reserving higher 
elaboration for the nearer and more immediate subject of his 

These objectors have also for the most part entirely overlooked 
the fact that traditions of this sublime catastrophe are widely 
spread. Plato mentions the great deluge in which the cities were 
destroyed, and useful arts lost, and suggests that there was a 
great and universal deluge before the particular inundations 
celebrated by the Greeks ; and Ovid's description of Deucalion's 
flood is minute in its harmony with the Scriptural account 
Lucian also mentions more than once the great deluge in 
Deucalion's time, and the ark which preserved the small remnant 
of humankind; referring to the wickedness and profligacy of the 
former generation, for which reason the earth gave forth abun- 
dance of water, great showers of rain fell, the rivers increased, 
and the sea swelled to such a degree that all men perished. 



Similar traditions abound in the East, as also in the inteiiar 
Africa, and in the South Sea Isknds, all bearing a striking lesei 
blancc to the narrative of Moses. 

Still stran^rcr than the mythical theory, is the fact that t 
advance of science should in a few years have taken the Mi 
out of the cat(*gory of impossible catastrophes, and by dimiiui 
ing its pn)portions in coin{>arison with the overwhelming chan^ 
goolopry announc<.'S as having occurred in our globe, has redm 
it to an ordinary ]>roc(>ss of nature, a thing of naught. 

We hold to the truth of the record that it was easily poesil 
to him " wliotaketh up the isles as a very little thing," that,howev 
partial or local it may have been, the deluge was co-extensive wi 
the then diffusion of the human family, that it was not m i 
ordinary course of nature, that it was a direct interposition 
Grod, and would learn from it to revere his justice, and adore 1 
love, arching all being as the bow in his cloud. Connected wil 
tliis event we may notice that the first ship, " Noah's Ark," < 
whose construction we have any account, was probably lai^r tha 
any which will ever again be built. The directions for its erecti<w 
were explicit, though simple. " Make thee an ark of gophff 
wood, rooms shalt thou make in the ark, and shalt pitch it within 
and without with pitch; and this is the fashion thou shalt make it 
of; the length of the ark shaU be three hundred cubits, and the 
breadth of it fifty cubits, and the height of it thirty cubife) 
with lower, second, and third stories shalt thou make it 
Estimating the cubit to have been eighteen inches in length, ^ 
capacity of the ark must have been about 40,000 tons;arfiii 
this huge vessel, " when the water prevailed exceedingly ^F'* 
the earth," Noah, and they that were with him, rode safely a^^ 
the swelling waves until the flood assuaging, the ark rested ^f^^ 
the mountains of Ararat. 

The Waters of Retribution, — ^Within the limits we have prescn^ 
to ourselves the next memorable occurrence related in the ^ 


2: Testament is the passage of the Eed Sea. In brief, the tale may 

... thus be told: — " The children of Israel went into the midst of the 

sea upon the dry ground, and the waters were a wall unto them, 

. on the right hand and on the left. And the Egyptians pursued 

^ and went in after them to the midst of the sea, and the waters 

returned and covered the chariots and the horsemen, and all the 

^ liosts of Pharaoh that came into the sea after them." 

The man of ^visdom, Joseph, had saved Egypt from famine, and 
tlie grateful sovereign invited the family of the saviour of his 
country to settle in the land. " Take your father and your 
household and come unto me, and I will give you the good of the 
land of Egypt, and ye shall eat the fat of the land." 

The graceful recognition of important services rendered to tlie 

state, and on the other hand the noble bearing of the recipient of 

the generous rewards heaped upon him, caused all things to 

progress harmoniously until, by the lapse of time, the death of 

the sagacious prime minister, and the accession of another king, 

'who knew not Joseph, the national good he had been the means of 

achieving was forgotten, the descendants of himself and family 

"^rere made slaves, their labour unremunerated, and their lives 

4$inbittered by oppression; even their desire for a quiet, peaceable 

emigration was forbidden, and the tyrants oppressed them more 

^nd more. 

The bitter cry of the wretched came up into the ear of the 
All Just, and the fiat of deliverance went forth. 

The ancient heathen had a sajung, that whom the Gods would 
;: destroy they first infatuate; wo rather mrxlify the thou^rht and 
^- reverse the order of the ideas, and say that rash h<*ad.strfjng men 
;:::; who may Ix; aptly termed blind, persist by their Sf-lf-will and 
ssr-'. obstiaacy in rushing to their dofjm; such was the case witli 
reS* Phara4jh and the EgA-ptians. 

Injustice and oppression may be borne for a whih*. biit it is 

'^^' impossible for a government long to run counter to the symjaihies 

I ifl- 



and rights of a people or any large class in the nation; and 1 
history of our own country affords an iUnstratioii that when 1 
peaceful leaving of the land by an aggrieved party is prohibit 
its compulsory detention will probably terminate in rebellion a 
sad necessity. Individual sins, national sins, world's sins, i 
not go unpunished; wrong, done by whom it may, can oe 
.. become right in the sight of God. 

Tfie Waters of Friendship, — I would now direct your attent 
I to a more peaceful scene, illustrating the advantages nations n 

I derive from the interchange of the commodities peculiar to 

I respective countries. 

If an individual could procure by his own hands everything 
considered desirable, there would be no absolute necessity 
commimication with his fellow-creatures, and all the kindly feeli 
induced by social intercourse would be undeveloped. 

So also with nations ; one country, by the arrangements of 
Almighty Creator as to its soil and climate, produces article 
I '■ the vegetable kingdom of great utility and desire to the in 

' bitants of another, " Every tree that is pleasant to the sight 

good for food," and abounds in the " precious fruits brought fi 
by the sun, and the precious things of the earth, and the fuL 
thereof," with flocks and herds, the land flowing with milk and hoi 
other countries are devoid of this luxuriance of vegetable 
but are rich in gold, silver, iron and brass, the ^' precious thi 
of the everlasting hills." 

Again, other nations whose lands are not so largely blei 
with natural advantages are endowed with peculiar mechan 
skill, converting the raw materials into articles of utility 
beauty; artificers in brass and iron, and cunning workmen in 
textile fabrics, naval and civil architecture. 

By mutual interchange, the wants of each people are met, i 
the enjoyment of the Almighty's blessings extended; and I 
utterly subversive of the intention of a bountiful Providence, i 


, ! 


of the true good of a country must that policy be which by its 
fiscal arrangements forbids or restricts this exchange of benefits. 
Far wiser was the course pursued by the Hebrews and Phoenicians 
in those extensive mercantile transactions by sea which took 
place on the occasion of the building of Solomon^s temple, the 
Mediterranean being thus made the great highway along which 
blessings were conveyed to both nations. 

The Hebrews were eminently an agricultural people, while 
the Phoenicians were noted for their manufacturing skill, and 
therefore to them Solomon applied for assistance in his great 
work. " Command,*' said he to Huram, king of Tyre, " that they 
hew me cedar trees, fir trees, and algum trees out of Lebanon, 
and I will give hire for thy servants according to all thou shalt 
appoint, for thou knowest there is not among us any that know 
how to cut timber like unto the Sidonians ; and send me a man 
cunning to work in gold, and in silver, and in brass, and in iron, 
and in purple, and in crimson, and blue, and that can skill to 
grave." And Huram sent to Solpmon saying, '* I will do all thy 
desire concerning timber of cedar, and timber of Gij and my 
servants shall bring them down fix)m Lebanon unto the sea, and 
I will convey them by sea in floats unto Joppa, and will cause 
them to be discharged there; and thou shalt carry the timber up 
to Jerusalem, and the twenty thousand measures of beaten wheat, 
and twenty thousand measures of barley, and twenty thousand 
baths of wine, and twenty thousand baths of oil which my lord 
hath spoken of, let him send unto his servants." 

Closing the Old History let us turn for a short time to the 
New Testament, and note some of those passages in which water 
plays an interesting part. 

It is remarkable that while the actors of the Old Testament 
were principally draym from pastoral pursuits, those of the New 
were most frequently taken from sea&ring occupations, many of 
the earliest disciples being fishermen. 


Water ^ an Kmhlem, — In one of the two simple expressiTe 
sacraments institiitotl bj our Saviour — ^that of baptism — ^wateris 
used to shadow forth a change in the soul from evil to good bj 
the influence of the IIolj Spirit, as washing^ with water deanfles 
the soiknl iKxly of man. ** Unless I wash thee thou hast no put 
in me," said Clirist ; but tliis evidently referred to the spirit of 
man and not to the mere external act of applying water, othe^ 
wise the Saviour would have himself performed it on all wilHng 
converts, whereas it is expressly stated that '^ Jesus himself b^ 
tized not, but his disciples.^ From the manner in which the 
subject is treated by the apostles, Paul thanking God that he had 
personally baptized few at Corinth; his ranking preaching ^ 
gospi'l far al>ove baptizing converts; and the freedom with which 
private Christians performed this ceremony, for Paul himself seem* 
to have been baptized by a private Christian, " a disciple caDed 
Ananias,*^ it may be unhesitatingly concluded that no peculiar 
sanctity is imparted to the ceremony by any official character the 
person performing the rite may possess. It is a debated question 
whether infants were baptized in the time of the apostles, — ^from 
the mention of " alibis'' and " household" it seems probable such 
was the case. 

Without going further into this question, as likewise that of 
total immersion or sprinkling, the propiiety of one or other of 


which courses depends more upon the temperature of the climate 
and the ordinary habits of the community than any express 
injunction, we can only on this occasion deprecate the unchristiaB 
spirit in which the subject has been discussed. 

Water and the Saviour. — In the course of his life on earth the 
Saviour manifested his supreme power over nature on several 
occasions ; those which fall within our range are the conversion 
of water into wine, and his walking upon the sea. Christ was no 
ascetic, nor was the religion he inculcated one of form and cere- 
mony, though these were duly observed in subordination to higher 


and more spiritual matters. His religion was to be a vital part 

of the individual, of which the possessor could no more divest 

himself than of his bodily heart or his soul, or the aspect of liis 

countenance, the whole personal character was to be so imbued 

with religion that it must necessarily appear as an influence u{X)n 

the action, thought, and word of every-day life, not a matter for 

special attention at certain times only. Moreover, if like Christ, 

it "was to be of a cheerful, social aspect, countenancing the joyouB 

occasions of life with its presence, making the happy happier, as 

"well as consoling the sorrowful; intensifying the joy, sharing and 

soothing the grief; shouting Ilosannas with exultant acclaim 

** Oh, that men would praise the Lord for his goodness ;" and yet 

'when the whole head is sick, and the whole heart faint, pouring 

in the oil and wine of sjrmpathy and relief. 

On the occasion of the first-named miracle, Mary, by her 
directions — " WTiatever he says, that do ye :" 6e<;ms to have bad 
SL presentiment that Jesus would retrieve the character of the 
host, probably some friend or relation, which was likely to Buffer 
"by the imperfect provision of wine for this marriage banquet. 
The assistance was rendered at a suitable time, and no niggard- 
liness marked the manner of its doing; it wa.s the " b^rst win<;," 
and its superior quality attracted particular attention. 

In that Ioii2 interval between his visit to the temple at twelve 
years of age, and the time we are now conisiderifig, what dutiful 
loving- attentions liad she rec<.-ived ; but uym all this periofl the 
history throws little light, only the significant woni?-, " he wa» 
subject unVj tri-rm;" henceforward, however, by the qui'it, gf^:ntle 
leprc-cf whici. he ^ve to her eameftt solicitation, mother aiA ron 
must LaTe f«rlt that Le was no lon;rer to be sul/ect to her, i>ut 
that a wa= about to take place in their relatlv..- Y,-riXifjZx^,i 
" I mtirc be ab-Dut my father = buiiness." 

TTe riaj s^-.-me day revert to this T^ixTraXivh again. ir.«ir-wl:V I 
may T*fA:r :■:• an anecdotfc re^^i:^ of oi*e who -^^^seqriei.tlv ':. 


a great poet, that in his youth, this miracle having been given 
out as a school theme for an essay (a practice highly objectionable, 
rendering sacred matters wearisome), the youthful wayward 
genius, unable to gird himself to the task, allowed the exercise to 
remain unattempted until the moment of delivery, when he 
hastily wrote the Hne, '' The water saw its Grod and blushed.** 

In reference to the miracle of walking upon the sea, we may 
remark that it was such an entirely new development of Christ^s 
authority, and so unexpected, that consternation filled the minds 
of the disciples ; it conveyed to them a lesson of profound reverence 
for his mysterious sublime power. The specific gravity of the 
human being is much greater than that of water, and the body 
sinks tmless the lungs be kept inflated by the art of the swimmer; 
and even then it is perfectly impossible for an ordinary man to 
stand erect upon the sea in the manner Christ appeared to the 

I will conclude this branch of our subject by remarking that 
as an indication of his own humility, and to teach others by his 
example, Christ is represented as pouring water into a basin and 
washing his disciples' feet, an occupation appertaining to an 
inferior position; and that the only recorded instance of the 
Saviour sleeping is when on board a ship that was carrying him 
from one scene of labour to another. In the great storm which 
alarmed the company, and prevented all others from slumbering, 
the master of the elements slept imdisturbed in the hinder part 
of the ship upon a pillow. Surely repose and tumult were never 
before so allied. 

Water, the SeamarCa Grave, — The voyage and wreck of the 
Apostle Paul are graphically described in the Acts, and' it 
would appear that imder his directions the vessel was driven 
before the wind well up on to the beach, which our commander 
informs me was an act of good seamanship, as it is in the distance 
between the ship's first touching the ground and high water mark 



g that the wreckudare most exposed to deatruction; and thechancca 
^ of escape Hre proportiosatelj increased if this interval can be 
-T, diminished by placing the vessel before the wind and running her 
^; through the surf as high on shore us possible, instead of the head 
jj, being vainly kept toward the sea, as is l^jo frequently the case 
^. when all hop« of leading off a lee-ahore has ceased. 

; I must conclude these brief references, which it would have 
« been more easy to have amplified than thus condensed, by direct- 
: ing your notice to the vigorous, gorgeous imagery in the Revela- 
tions, wherein we read of " the voice from heaven as tlie voice of 
tnany waters, and the sea of glass mingled witli fire; and tliey 

that have gotten the victory ' 
and over his mark, and over 

r the iieast and a 
i number of his : 


the sea of glass having the harps of God. And thej sing the 
song of Moses, and the Lamb, saying, Great and marvellous are 
thy works, Lord God Almighty, just and true are thy ways thou 
King of Saints.*' And the beloved apostle further beheld '* a pure 
river of water of life, clear as crystal, proceeding out of the throne 
of God and of the Lamb. Li the midst of the street of it, and on 
either side of the river was there the tree of life, which bare twelve 
manner of fruits, and yielded her frnit every month, and the leaves 
of the tree were for the healing of the nations. And there shall 
be no more curse, but the throne of God and of the Lamb shall be 
in it, and his servants shall serve him. And they shall see his 
face, and his name shall be in their foreheads. And there shall 
be no night there, and they need no candle, neither light of the 
sun, for the Lord giveth them light, and they shall reign for ever 
and ever." 

Into which happy haven of repose may God grant to each of 
us an humble entrance, after this voyage of life, — Amen. 

Our minister so ingratiated himself with the seamen during the 
voyage that he became a general friend. On arrival at our 
destination, and after the passengers and their luggage had been 
all landed, and the cargo partially discharged, he begged the use 
of the cabin for half a day in order to treat the crew to a dinner, 
to which proposition assent was easily obtained, the minister being 
as much a favourite with the captain as with the men. At half- 
past twelve o'clock work was discontinued for the day, the lads 
swept the decks, and had the crew been preparing for a Queen's 
drawing-room they could not have been more scrupulously clean 
and daintily equipped in their best finery. 

At one o'clock we descended into the cabin to dinner, and 
ample justice was done to the massive joints of roast beef, the 


trim legs of mutton, and steaming vegetables; immense plum 
puddings and gigantic cans of foaming beer being superadded to 
the more heavy items of the bill of fare. No happier man in the 
colony that day than the good minister presiding at the dinner- 
table of bold seamen. The repast over, pipes and tobacco were 
introduced, and "^ne wherewith we drank the health of the host 
and captain, — toasts received with hearty cheers from lusty throats, 
the whole finishing with glasses of grog all round. Once more 
filling their pipes, the crew adjourned to the forecastle, where our 
ministerial friend naturally formed the topic of conversation. 

" He is not as most parsons," said one, " always walking aft and 
never casting an eye forward, like the generality of the sky-scraping 
black coated gentlemen, who rather seem to think they are better 
than the rest of us, but it ai*nt the more true for all that; and I 
tell you what it is, even they do not always keep their luff who 
have nothing else to do, and it is rather hard if a sailor may not 
fall off the wind a little and have a bit of a spree sometimes." 

" Why," said another, " many's the time when he's been for'ard 
and seen a hand a smoking with hardly any baccy in his pipe, he 
says, says he, ' Tom, there is not much good in that, you are 
nearly out.' * Almost, sir.* * Will you have a cigar,' says he, 
and he would pull one out of his pocket and hand it over, and 
when he saw him a going to the cook's galley for a light, he 
warn't too proud to say, ' Here, light it by mine,' and as he went 
aft would laugh kind like, and say, ' When you have smoked that 
you can have another if you choose.' 

" And for all that he tells us about our sins pretty stiff, and all 
about heaven and hell, and it ai'nt his fault if we don't keep our 
course. And then you should hear him pray for all on board, 
for them that do business in waters and go in ships. And you 
know when the hook of the block broke, and it came down out of 
the fore-top, and might have killed a man, it only bruised him ; 
and when the boy fell overboard was'nt he saved ; and when you 
thought you were all poisoned, and he among the lot, did'nt you 



all come round ; and I heard the captain saj the other day we 
had^nt lost even a stunsail boom all the voyage ; and so it is all 
right, and I think he's got something to do with these here things." 

'^ And/* said another, '^ you hav'nt seen a man drunk since we 
have been on board the ship, not even in port; and more, if we 
knew where he's a going to preach, Sunday or workaday, there's 
not a hand on board, that the master will spare, who will not go 
to prayers, except the Maltee covey, who makes his crosses afore 
he turns in, and kisses a little image all made of bone, no bigger 
than my thumb, and don't row long of us like." 

And it was true. 




"Tis thoa, Columbus, lo another pole 
Shaltrear the mast, and o'er the surges roll; 
Thf deeds shall last in storied annals long. 
The copious subject of some poet's song. 

Then other islands midst the main they spied. 
And lands less steepj rising o'er the tide ; 
Delightful isles, renowned of ancient date, 
And stjled bj tuneM bardo, ' The Fortunate.' 
The rivers, mnrmnring from the hills above. 
With crystal streams, renewed the vemaJ grove. 
No sultry heat oppressed the grateful day; 
Soft devg and zepbyr« cooled the solar ray; 
And here were feigned the mansions of the blest. 
Th' Sljsian seats of everlasting rest." 

The mariner narigating an unknown sea or river marks the 
Id headlands, rocky points, and blnfi^a; the contour, curves, and 


compass bearings of the shore; the character of the cliffs, the 
shoalings of the water; and thenceforward the new regions are 
familiar to all seamen by these well known signs. 

The observant land traveller through a strange country notes 
the nature of the soil, the courses of the rivers, where a dense 
forest shrouds him in, and where an open plain gently undulates 
before him ; he records the spots where animals and birds abound, 
and reports their species, plumage, song, and habits. 

Thus are these seas and lands brought within the common 
geography of nations, and henceforward and for ever they are 
part of our own globe, and belong to humanity, — ^we know them. 

So there are mountain heights, streams of rich influence, 
notable events and discoveries in the history of the human race, 
which once accomplished, have for evermore^ marked, abiding 
eflect, on the mind, physical condition, and well-being of nations. 

Of these starting points, landmarks to the family of man, the 
revelations of God by Moses and Christ, which have had an 
overwhelming influence upon human thought and pursuits, stand 
out in bold prominence; and subordinate to these may be named 
the geometrical principles announced by the Egyptians and pro- 
secuted by the Greeks, which have become the foundation of all 
mathematical learning and mechanical skill in succeeding ages — 
the high thoughts of liberty which for ever remain in the Greek 
writers — the maxims of law, and civic institutions, established by 
the Romans, which have since formed part of the legal studies of 
all nations — the philosophy of Bacon and Newton, by which men 
have arrived at the knowledge of the laws of nature through 
observations of its phenomena — the invention of printing by 
moveable types, diflusing, as a broad daylight upon all, the 
reflected rays of superior minds — the invention of gunpowder, 
raising war from the rude concussion of individuals to a chess 
game of scientific implements and positions — the invention of 
steam appliances, conferring upon the multitude greater advan- 


tages than preyiouslj possessed by the few, thus making " the 
many" rich — ^the electric telegraph, that grand link between 
mind and mind, by whose means space and time are spanned 
by a bridge of lightning. 

The magnet possesses no north pole without its corrdative south 
pole, and there is no positive electric pole without its negative ; so 
theory to the man of genius, internal persuasion, is as the one 
pole of the magnet, the other pole, the outer phenomenon or fact, 
may be near, or it may be remote; it may be at hand just through 
the thin partition, or ten miles distant, or ten thousand. 

The observer in a galvanic circuit may not be able to point 
out to his less gifled neighbour the whereabouts of the battery, 
the exciting cause of the present felt influence ; it may be at his 
feet, or distant as the faintest twinkling star, but he is certain 
that it exists somewhere. So the intuition of genius knows that 
the external fact of which his thought is part of the circuit exists 
in nature, although for the moment unable to map out its precise 

" I have found it," cried the philosopher of old; " I have found 
it," he shouted, as he hurried along the highway, doubtless to 
convey the intelligence to some brother believer in science. 

Found it? — ^foimd what? we may almost fancy we hear some 
solid practical citizen exclaiming; it would rather appear he has 
lost something — ^his wits — ^for such conduct is not seemly, is 
unbecoming the dignity of a sedate citizen. Nay, carping friend, 
with reason was the philosopher outrageously joy fill, for had 
he not found a pearl of great price I He had discovered the glorious 
47th problem ; a victory of knowledge for you, and for me, and for 
all time. 

Palissy was deemed a fool during the fourteen years of anxious 
toil and poverty through which he passed, before he accomplished 
the burning of colours in porcelain; the victory was won at last, 
and specimens of his skill, ages after his death, are valuable as 
the precious metals. 


Always and ever the same, the thing unknown, unaccomplished, 
is a dream, an absurdity to the mass ; the thing done, is it not well 

known, and no longer difficult. 

« « « « * 

One of the greatest achievements of this class — one which has 
had an important and permanent bearing on the world*s history, 
was the discovery of the Great Western Continents — the New 
World, as they were long and properly designated — now known 
by the more ordinary names of North and South America. 

Down to the time of Columbus, the form of the globe had 
been variously conjectured ; by some geographers being mapped 
out as a flat plain, bordered by seas, to which imagination only 
fixed the bounds ; but in his age the idea of the earth's rotundity 
erupted as a volcano into the sliunbering level of the human 
mind, agitating the intellect of thoughtful men. 

Pondering over and cherishing this great new thought, and the 
well-known circumstances that India was situated to the east of 
Europe, and in the same northern hemisphere, and that an imex- 
plored ocean lay to the west of Europe, Columbus arrived at the 
conclusion, which once conceived was irresistible, that, unless land 
intervened, instead of endeavouring to reach India by an eastward 
course, sailing round Africa, and crossing the equator twice, the 
shortest way to the East Indies would be to sail directly westward; 
and the inspection of every spherical body must have kept the 
idea perpetually before him, and suggested a proof of the truth of 
his conjecture. This simple, sublime conception he submitted 
to the test of experiment, and through much discouragement, 
supported only by the clearness of the theory to his own pure 
mind, the brave philosophical navigator achieved, not his original 
design, but one equally or even more important, the discovery of 
another India, the West Indies. 

Several nations share the honour of tracing out portions d 
these vast American continents. The English trials to find s 


aea-passage to the East Indies, northward of the great American 
land, led to the discoveries so well known as connected with the 
names of Baffin, Davis, Frobisher, Franklin, Parry, and Ross, 
whose extensive surveys map out the icy regions of the North 
Pole. Band after band of heroes pushed forward Arctic navi- 
gation with untiring effort to discover the North-West Passage, 
for a long period without success, but the glorious honour has at 
last been won by the courage, perseverance, and patience of our 
worthy countrymen. 

The French investigated other portions ; and planted colonies in 
the southern peninsula of North America, and also the pine- 
clad districts of Canada, which they retained until the close of 
the eighteenth century. It was in connection with American 
colonizing plans and adventures that so much misery was caused 
in France by the wild projects known as the Mississippi Scheme. 

The English founded settlements at various points on the main- 
land, and also on several of the neighbouring islands; and still 
nearer to the equator Mexico and Peru were invaded by the 
Spaniards, who in small bands, mere handsful of men, maintained 
by their prowess and arms fierce and successftd contests with the 
aborigines. The exploits of these adventurers, mellowed by 
the hues of distant time, possess a romantic charm which a 
nearer view would dispel. 

Beyond the Spanish main, Brazil was discovered by a Por- 
tuguese, Pedro Alvarez de Cabral ; who being on a voyage to India, 
was driven by a storm westward, and made the land of South 
America, in April, 1500, and named the country Santa Cruz 
(Holy Cross), in gratitude for his deliverance from shipwreck; 
but the name of Brazil was subsequently given to it on account 
of the abundance of the dye-wood, Braziletto (csBsalpinia custa), 
brought thence, and this name it has ever since retained. 

These vast continents, thus discovered at various times, and 
piecemeal, have been the source whence Europe has principally 


liKlived iu modem innneu^e snppliefi of those important aiticks, 
IpAd, filver, cotton, mgar, coffee, and tobacco. 

The aanbem part, Canada, taken by the Ei^lifb from tli« 
yrench a* the prize of the battle of Quebec, fooght under the 
gallant General Wolfe, ii peculiarly adapted for growing corn, 
and thither many thousands of our countrymen annually emigrate, 
and ptircbantig farms at a low rat£, eventually find their way U> 
position and affluence. The timber removed from the vasi foresbi 
to make way for the cultivation of corn, forms an importaiit 
article of export to England, paying by its sale for the expense of 
clearing the land, which in all the more valuable for its removal. 

Crossing a barrier of lakes or seas, we enter that extraordinaiy 
development of a former English colony, now the great United 
States of America; aud there, corn in the northern states gives 
place, as we advance southwurd, lo maize, rice, cotton, tobacco, 
and sugar. 

The ootton plant (gossy|num berbaceum) genendlj grows 
about three feet high; its fniit consists of round three lobed 


capsules, with seeds the size of small peas. After flowering, the 
capsules swell out, and when perfectly ripe burst, and the down 
surrounding the seeds protrudes, and is gathered as speedily as 
possible to prevent injury by the weather. 

The important part in the commerce of England, which is per- 
formed by the down of these cotton pods, may be better appre- 
ciated from the following statement of the quantity imported 
yearly, and from the fact that whole towns, each larger than the 
capital city of many countries, and many hundreds of thousands, 
millions we may say, of English-men and women and their families, 
directly or indirectly, obtain their livelihood from its manufacture 
into cloth, and the necessary appliances for that purpose. 

Weight of cotton wool imported into England in the year 
1852:— fibs. 

United States 765,630,544 

Brazil 26,506,144 

Mediterranean 48,058,640 

East Indies 84,922,432 

West Indies 703,690 

Other countries 3,960,992 


The value of cotton goods and yam exported in the year 1853, 
is stated to have been no less than £32,709,385. The general 
name of calico, applied to the plain white cloth manufactured 
from this fibre, arose from the circumstance that this description 
of textile fabric was first procured from Calicut, in the East 
Indies, the seat of the original manufacture. So extremely fine 
can this fibre be spun, that one pound weight of cotton down has 
been formed into a thread 167 miles long. 

The cofiee (coffea arabica) is a very beautiful plant, its long 
glossy dark green leaves presenting a pleasing contrast to the 
clusters of white jessamine-like flowers round the stem. Wh^i 
the berries are ripe they are of a dusky red colour; each berry 


cont^iuDg two grains of coffee, surrounded b; a aoft pulp, which 
soon dries after the berry is picked, the coffee gr&tns being 
separated from the husk hy cmsbing the outer coating. 

The peculiar refreshing aromatic principle which coffee contaict 
has caused it to become a very favourite beverage, and its use in 
England may be judged by the quantity imported, — amoiintiiig to 
sixty millions of pounds weight yearly, of which about half is 
retiuned for home consumption, and the residue exported. 

The sugar cane (saccliarum ofHcioanim), which baa become so 
important to man, 'le a plant of the gra^ tribe; it ia always 

propagated by cuttings, an internode or knot being included in 
each piece planted in the soil; from this setting the stem rapidly 
shoots up to the h^ght of from eight to twenty feet. At a late 
stage of its growth a loose panicle of triandrous flowers is developed, 


a arriving at maturity, the stems, wliose soil spongy tissue 
le sweet juice, are cut down and chopped into convenient 
lengths for carriage to the crusliii^-mii!, where the pieces of cane 
are passed through powerJul iron rollers to express the juice. 
This juice is subsequently boiJed into a thick syrup, which 
crystallizes on cooling, yielding the several varieties of sugar 80 
la^yused in the civilized world, 20,000,000 cwts., or 1,000,000 
tons being the estimated production annually; the yearly imports 
into the United Kingdom amounting to no leSB than 7,000,000 
cwts., or 350,000 tons. 

The leaves of several species of the plant nicotiana, constitute 
the article known as tobacco. 

The smoking of tobacco was introduced into England by Sir 
Walter Baleigh about the year 1586, and although laws were made 
against its importation, and even the monarch took up his pen b> 
denounce the weed, the use of tobacco has become so extensive 
that upwards of 20,000 tons arrive in the United Kingdom every 

The atr d Bio ot Jausro. tj>^ caf^^ -j! bmii. ii 


south of the bay, being cloven into sections by several spurs of 
hills. A good view of the bay (seventeen miles in length, and eleven 
in (extreme width), on the side of which it is situated, with the 
numerous picturesque islands scattered over the waters, may be 
obtained from the granitic pile called the Corcovado Mountain. 

Wooded almost to its summit, the traveller emerges suddenly 
out on to the bare rock, and enjoys the panorama of small lakes 
distributed over vast plains, broken by masses of elevated lands, 
among which the forest clad Organ Mountains are conspicuous. 

On these mountains, as over the whole of this magnificent 
country, the naturalist may wander for years, perceiving finesh 
novelties at every step. The beauteous forms of Brazilian flora, 
particularly its wondrous parasitic plants of every variety of 
foliage and colour, have attracted the attention and admiration of 
the botanists of all countries. 

Birds of all hues people these dense forests ; and of the beautiful 
feathers of the head and breasts of the infinity of humming birds 
which abound, delicate ornamental wreaths are manufactured, 
the wing cases of beetles being set therein like shining precious 
stones, reflecting and refracting the rays of light with intense 

Luxuriously embowered in gardens wherein flourish oranges, 
lemons, pomegranates, palms, and numerous indigenous Brazilian 
plants, the homes of Rio merchants dotting the silvery shore of 
the bay, at a short distance from the city, are delicious little Edens 
of pleasure and repose. 

Gay city of Rio, farewell. 




" Still aa a slave before bia lord 
The ocean halli no blast; 
His great bright eye moBt silentl/ 
Up to the moon is ca^t. 
If he may know which way to go, 
For ^e guides him smooth or grim; 
' See brothers, see how graciously 
She louketh down on him.' " — Coleridge, 

To obtain the treasure which the dying father in the fable, said 
liiy hiddpii in the garden, his sons dug every part of the ground 
thoroughly and carefully, and though they found not the money 
treasure, tliey reaped a more solid advantage, — the garden became 
tK> productive that the promised fortune was indirectly realized. 
So the Alchemists' search for the philosopher's stone, whose magic 
touch was Co turn everything into gold ; their attempts to transmute 
1 ioto the precious metals ; and their experiments to 



compound an elixir of life, gifted with the power of imparting 
perpetual youth, resulted in disappointment, as to the realization of 
these questionable wonders, but led to the more valuable dis- 
coveries of modem chemistry. 


" We will begin our subject," said the doctor, with the consi- 
deration of water. The ancients regarded water as an element 
which, with fire, air, and earth, constituted the system of the 
world; and it was not until 1781 that Cavendish demonstrated it 
to be a compound body, the product of the combustion of hydro- 
gen and oxygen, which latter had been obtained as a distinct sub- 
stance by Priestley in 1774; and although hydrogen had been 
known before, it was not correctly described until by Cavendish 
in 1766. 

However startling the statement may seem, I will decompose 
water before you; and borrowing a musket barrel from the 


A. FUuh of water over spirit lamp. 

B. Portable furnace in section. 

c. Chin barrel^ containing iron filings. 
The hydrogen gas pacing through the bent tube is represented as rising in bubbles into the 
reversed cylinder ^ displacing the watery whieh previously filled that vessel. 

armourer, and pouring in some clean iron filings, the doctor 
heated it in a portable furnace, and connecting a small glass flask 
of boiling water, with one end of the tube, he passed a current of 
steam through the barrel, and from the other extremity issued 
a gas, colourless, transparent, light, and explosive. This was 

TBB doctor's LBOTUBE. 65 

The iron filings had in the meantime become coated with nut, 

they had therefore acquired something from the steam, oxygen; 
hence water from the fiask, in the form of steam, had been broken 
up into its two coustituenta or elements — hydrogen and oxygen — 
the one being retained in comhinatdon with the iron, the other 
element, hydn^en, passing forward. 

Phicing a galvanic battery on the cabin table, the doctw 
inserted in a small vessel of water two pieces of platinum, and 
connected each end of the battery with one of the pieces by copper 
wire, and reversing two jars over the platinum plates, the gases 
resulting from the decomposition of the water, which under such 

drcumstances is effected, were collected, oxygen in one jar, and 
hydrc^en in the other, the proportion being two measures of the 
latter to one of the former ; thus proving that water is a condensed 
combination of two portions of hydrogen and one of oxygea. 

The lightness of hydrogen vros manifested by its raising a 
small balloon high above the mast head, to the great amnsonent 
of the young folks on board. 

From the peculiar behaviour of hydn^n, and the similarity it 
bears to many metals in combining with oxygen, it has long been 
a scientific speculation, that one day this ariel of chemistry will 
be reduced to a soUd metallic state. In its present well known 


form as a gas, it is sixteen times lighter than oxygen, and fourteen 
and a half times lighter than atmospheric air. 

Evidence of the compound nature of water does not rest upon 
its decomposition only. " I will now retmite the constituents of 
water," said the doctor, and measuring off into the same jar a pint 
of hydrogen and half a pint of oxygen, he discharged a voltaic 
spark through the mixture ; the previously dry interior of the jar 
was now moist, the gases had disappeared", a drop or two of water 
being the result of the combination. 

Water is known in three states, solid, liquid, and gaseous, as 
ice, water, steam. Below 32° of Fahrenheit's thermometer it is a 
solid transparent body, familiarly known as ice, which being 
lighter than liquid water, floats upon its surface; the expansive 
force of freezing water is so enormous as frequently to burst 
asunder the pipes which it may be occupying at the time of frost, 
and causing bottles to break with the expansion. 

This force is of great service in agriculture, the freezing water 
separating the particles of earth, thus breaking up the clods and 
pulverizing the soil. The floating of ice depends upon the 
peculiar circumstance that water is at its greatest density at 40° 
Fahrenheit, gradually contracting in bulk as it descends ftx)m a 
higher temperature until it reaches this point, further cooling 
being attended with expansion instead of contraction; thus ice, 
which is frozen water at 32° occupies more space than the 
warmer water at 40°, and consequently floats or rises to its surface. 
If it were not for this deviation from the ordinary law, of bodies 
being more compact the colder they are, ice would sink, and 
layer upon layer be formed until the whole became a solid mass, 
resulting in the death of flshes, and increasing the time and diffi- 
culty of thawing; whereas from its being on the surface ice is 
always within reach of the sun's rays. 

Between 32° and 212° Fahrenheit water is a liquid mobile 
substance^ the freedom of motion of its particles among one another 



enabling it to overcome resistances from friction, and permitting 
it to tend continually to penetrate towards the earth's centre, 
until some compact matter prevents its further descent. 

This finding the lowest level is attended with vast and impor- 
tant consequences to mankind, the force of moving waters being 
employed to turn various machines, as flour, saw, and paper mills, 
and by its percolation through the earth, giving rise to springs 
and rivers, thus supplying man with refreshing drink in places 
where otherwise it would be impossible to exist. 

At the sea level water passes into steam at 212°, and then 
occupies one thousand times the space it filled in the liquid state. 
This property of enormous expansion by heat is rendered available 
in the driving of innumerable steam-engines, some fitted in build- 
ings on shore, others in motion on railways or in steam-vessels. 
The primary principle of all these machines is the same, being 
the force of the steam moving a disc or plate in an enclosed 
chest, with which plate is connected a rod, called a piston- 
rod, from which other pieces of machinery convey the motion 
Tvherever it may be required. 










The dark portion represents the -piston^ which is acted on by t/ie/oree of (he steam. Not to 
complicate tfie diagram the action of steam on the lower side only oj the piston is represented. 

The steam enters the lower portion of the box A, called a 
cylinder, forces up the disc or piston, which raises the rod B, 
and by means of various apparatus attached to the extremity of 


B, a rotary, up and down, or intermitting motion is given to otkr 
parts of the machinery, as may be desired. The details of these 
contrivances do not fall ¥dthin our limits. The steam wliich 
entei'ed at S is allowed to escape through £, having raised the 
piston from the bottom to the top of the cylinder; and another 
jet of steam entering at ST pushes the piston down to the bottom 
of the cylinder, and so on alternately. 

Evaporated from the sea and rivers, water givcis rise to the 
changes and beauty we observe in the clouds, for the air itself 
is invisible; it clothes the arctic regions and the sunmiits of 
mountains with an intense robe of light ; and as a polished mirror 
reflects the overhanging woods. 

Its value to man as a refreshing beverage can only be appre- 
ciated by the fevered pulse, and those who have travelled in " a 
dry and thirsty land where no water is." Water dissolves manj 
substances, as is evident from the following analysis of the English 
channel waters, and, as may be supposed, the matters dissolyed 
vary much, according to the nature of the coasts near which the 
sea flows. 


Water 964*74372 

Chloride of Sodium, (Common Salt) . . . 27*05948 

Chloride of Potassium 0*76552 

Chloride of Magnesium 3*66658 

Bromide of Magnesium 0*02929 

Sulphate of Magnesia 2*29578 

Sulphate of Lime 1*40662 

Carbonate of Lime 0*03301 



In connection with the solvent power of the sea, some obser- 
vations on salt may not be out of place here, remarked the 
doctor. This common but valuable substance is obtained from 
several sources, and prepared in various ways. 

I. By evaporation of the waters of the ocean, which contain 
about 3 per cent, of salt. This process is largely carried on in 

THE doctor's lecture. 69 

the South of France, Spain, Cape de Verd Islands, Austria, 
Sardinia, &c. 

n. By congelation. If a weak solution of salt is exposed to 
cold it separates into two parts, one almost pure water, which 
freezes, and the other, which remains Hquid, containing a large 
proportion of salt. This mode of preparing salt is used in 
northern countries. 

in. By surface evaporation, as practised in many of the inland 
countries of Europe, where, from brine springs, the weak saline 
liquor is pumped up and allowed to flow over heaps of brushwood, 
whose extended surface causes rapid evaporation and concentra- 
tion of the brine, which is subsequently boiled down, and the salt 
then allowed to deposit by crystallization. 

IV. When the natural brine springs are strongly salt, the 
solution is pumped up, and at once evaporated by artificial heat. 

The springs in Cheshire being particularly rich, yielding some- 
times 20 per cent, of salt, are worked in this way. 

Brine springs originate in immense deposits of salt occurring at 
considerable depths below the surface of the earth, and as an 
economical mode of raising the substance, water is poured down 
into the beds of salt and pumped up again when saturated, and 
the liquor evaporated. There are many salt lakes in the world, 
the two most interesting being the Dead Sea, about forty-five 
miles long and ten broad, 1,000 grains of the water containing no 
less than 264 grains of saUne matter ; and the Great Salt Lake of 
North America, which is reported to contain as much salt as 
the water can possibly dissolve. 

Whence came the salt is a moot question not likely to be readily 

The use of this article as a condiment with food, its value in 
the preserving of meat and fish, its importance in the preparation 
of chlorine for bleaching, and of soda for various manufactures, 
as glass and soap making, as a glaze for pottery, as a manure, 
and for various other uses, render this substance one of the most 
interesting subjects of study. 


The Tides. 

The great influencing cause of the tides la the moon, whidi b; 
reason of its neamyas to our earth has more effect upon the irata 
than the larf.'er bnt more distant BUn; and were the globe coveid 
with wat4;r there would be two high tidea at every spot daily, out 
immediately under the moon, the other place of high tide bdof 
on the opposite side of the world; the waters nearest the nocn! 
being more attracted than tlie average, and the waters on tbe 
opposite side less than the average; and the water being drain: 
awaj from the oilier parts to supply these two waves, the tidea wonH 
be low at the t«o intermediate points. The great tidal waveieli 
from east to west round the earth, but is much diverted from tk 
direct line by the vast continent* of Africa and America, and tLe 
chain of Indian islands terminating in Australia; moreover, tk 
form of the land and the length and narrownesa of the channdt 
of rivers greatly interfere with the time at which the tidal w»k 
arriveB at any particular point on the earth's surface. 

The sun, as we have said, also exerts an attractive power (fl 
the ocean, and when, as at new moon, the line of direction is the 

same as that of the moon's attraction, the tidal wave ia aagmaitei, 
and a high or spring tide is the result ; and when the moon is ■> 
the full, the moon and the sun being then on opposite sides of tlu 
world, the sun tends to draw the waters upwards from one side of 
the earth, and the earth itself away from the water on the dde (^ 

Tiu: doctor's lecture. 

the moon, which draws the waters facing it up from the earth, 
thus occasioning a st^ond high or spring tide. These tides occur 

■' every fortnight, viz., at new and full moos. At the moon's first 
ri and third quarters, and intermediately, lower or neap tides occur, 
e as the foliuwiug diagram may perhaps render more explicit; — 

Rain — Dew. 

The warmer the air is at any given spot the more vapour of 

water is absorbed and sustained, but if by any means the air is 

lc>'*rered in temperatnre, as by meeting a colder cnrreDt of air, 

or pomii^ over cool earth, the same amount of moistnre cannot 

be retained, and precipitatioD of a portion 

1 the form of r 


I'usut-M. Tho I'anh. l>_v its abaorption of the son's raTs daring 
liar, Imviutrd hi>i, aaJ wamu the atratum of air Ijing od 
siirtiii-o, wliU'li 18 llmg remlored capable of Bustaining a la 
tiuuiititv <•( nioistuiv; ut suii-<lown the land radiates or throw: 
it!) Ih'at iulu th>< aimi^sjihcre, and the tenip«rature of tbe 
iiiiiiif\tiati.'l}- ulwc (he gronud being consequently lowered 
aiimi't rvtain ull tlit- vaj>our which it bad imbibed in the d 
tiiiu>, :tiiil a ilf]K'sit of tu<>isture takes place; this is called di 
Till' gniiitr ih.' tlitrvix-nce between the temperature of the ( 
mill iiiixlil Dt any griven pliicc the more likely is dew to be fonn 
MoriMviT, siiiiic UJiis an' more rapid radiators than others, tl 
gKisj is friHiiu'utly wot with dew when the gravel walk or roadf 
i^dry: tlu-iiiiiuiTtnis points of the blades causing grass to throw 
lii'ut >![iii,<dilY, whereas gruvi'l retains the absorbed heat Itng 
iui<lilot's iK't vui>l the surface air so readily; hence in camping' 
il Is warmer to lie upon the walk or roadway than npoQ the gn 
On cloudy iiighis diw is not formed, the clouds reflecting b* 
the hi'iit to the eurlh, so keeping up the warmth of tbe air on i 

k \ 





/ h J 

\\ \ 


r r Uss 



/ \ 


surface; and on the some principle, by a simple cmtriniK 
delicate plants may be protected from the chillii^ eBeea ' 
radiation by stret«hii]g a screen over them; aod this screen, itn 


Qj ever thin the fabric may be, reflects the radiant heat to the foil| 
g thus preserving the temperature of the atmosphere around the 


Arctic voyagers narrate that in those regions cloudy days arc 
the warmest days; the heat radiated from the earth being reflected 
hy thedoods. 

In hot latitudes the timber of a ship, being heated by the fun^ 

wsarms the surrounding air, which takes up from the sea all the 

moastme it can sustain; at night the vessel rapidly gires off hssaif 

and the wood becoming comparatively cold, imparts it* coolness to 

file adjacent air, which can no longer retain all the moisture it bad 

pbaorbed in the day, the ezceas is therefore deposited as a fine dacDp' 

nesB over the whole ship which, before sunset, was perfectly Axy* 

Ufatstradve of dew and rain, a cold glass vase waa brou^t iaIo 

file waxm sadooo, and ^»edily a dewy moiitaie on the furiaee wa» 

mppmr<s3XL. ^ Observe,^ said the dfjctor^ that y/rUf/a fA the warni 

air of the rocoi in ecnlact with the glass rwhich wolj be CM»' 

flideved as a cooi masi of earthy is unable Xo mff^nt tfj imidi 

TmpofUT aa h £d be&vt the vase was intmdwxd* and thereffJK th« 

misiqipcstahue: ^xoese k 6e^^uKUtd as a thcnrer kA^ fuue caaxi; '^ the 

jbe7E^arkiiaiirepT»sa&ax^the<ailhcr^^^ Ijjf raSsdif/u 

J, azxdihe air l££Qf J»iia»d k. t^Et^^aatlttji^ 

i: 'sut T-xjsL k wajs^ 'tnz: ii«(; vfju^ -acr <«i;jle]t':i^ ^uUt 

in tlae: acaier purs uf ^ai*: rxm.; irjax**: -jT :2u*: t^^/shu ji zwis^'jat 

att & ine: ^imcac^f» '4L t^ 2i;2»». auii -rju^a 'lie yuanfiJenr 


Th£ Am. 

Man liyes on the confines of two great gaseous sea%; the land, 
his home, rising from the level of the upper surface of one ocean, 
the water, (composed, as we have seen, of two gases, oxygen and 
hydrogen, in a state of chemical combination), and penetrating 
by its mountain ranges into another great ocean, the air, composed 
also of two gases, oxygen and nitrogen, not chemically combined 
but in a condition of mechanical mixture. 

Air is an invisible intangible substance, in which we move so 
freely that at first it might be doubted whether it is matter or not, 
but there are certain properties possessed by material substances 
which if air is found to possess likewise, we cannot doubt of 
its being material, although invisible. These are; — 

1st, Impenetrability, or that property by which one body prevents 
another from occupying the same space with itself at the same time. 
If a glass vase, furnished with a stopcock, be inverted in a vessel 
of water, and we attempt to force the vase down, the fluid will not 
enter, being resisted by the air in the vase, and the resistance is 
owing to the impenetrability of the air ; on opening the stopcock 
the liquid enters freely, being enabled to drive out the air which 
now has a means of escape. 

2nd, Inertia and Mobility, By inertia is meant that if at rest a 
certain efibrt or force will be required to move a body, or if in 
motion to stop the body, or change the direction of its motion. 
Wind is air in motion, and any substance which presents an 
obstacle to its progress sustains a pressure, and must either exert 
a proportional resistance or be carried forward with the body -of 
moving air. Bubbles, balloons, &c., drive before the wind, as they 
ofier little resistance ; on the other hand, trees, which resist the 
force of the current of air, are frequently blown down by high 
winds; waves are caused by the resistance of water to this 

THE doctor's lecture. 76 

invisible agent, and the propelling of sliips bj sails depends 
upon the same principle. Thus we arrive at some idea of the 
immense power exerted by moving air. 

3rd, Weight. This maj be exhibited bj a very simple expe- 
riment. Suspend from one arm of a scale-beam, a flask with a 
Stopcock attached, having previously pumped out the air as much 
as possible; balance the flask accurately, and then open the stop- 
cock; the flask will now sink, having become heavier by the air 
which has entered, thus proving that air has weight. 

The column of air standing above every square inch of the 
earth's surface, weighs about fifteen pounds, and it is under this 
enormous pressure on all parts of the human body, equivalent to 
30,000 poimds upon an average sized person, that we carry ^n all 
onr operations. Under ordinary circumstances, however, we are 
not sensible of this pressure, because the air within the body 
exerts a similar and equal pressure outwards. 

The air at the level of the sea is pressed down by the weight 
of the mass above it; and if we rise through any portion by 
ascending a mountain or in a balloon, we have no longer to sup- 
port the pressure of the stratum of air through which we have 
passed, and the weight upon the body will be less the higher we 
ascend ; and just as by cutting asunder the cord by which a com- 
pacted bale of cotton or other compressible substance is bound, the 
mass expands, pressing the bag outwards, so the efl*ect of ascend- 
ing to a great height is somewhat similar; part of the pressure 
under which the blood ordinarily flows through the veins being 
taken ofl*, the blood vessels distend, causing the sensation of ful- 
ness and swelling frequently experienced by travellers on moun- 
tains ; and to such an extent does this take place that occasionally 
the eyes become bloodshot, and blood exudes from the nose and 
ears; bursting through the delicate vessels, whose sides are not 
suflSciently thick and strong to sustain the outward pressure of 
the <^ilating blood. 



Tlie air u a mixture of oxygen and mtrpgen in ihe foOoving 
pfoportionf: — 


Nitrogen 77 

Oxygen 23 





ft aI»o contalna a small quantity of carbonic acid and a trace 
id ammonia. IllustratiYe of the intense activi^ of oxygoi, the 
doctor prepared several jars of that gas by heating red preciptate 
(a compound of oxygen and mercury) in a small tube, heat 
Slaving tlie power of separating the elementa of this snbstance, 
and collected the oxygen in a glass jar, tbe mercury falling in 
metallic globules into the heated tube. He then placed a piece of 
ignited charcoal, attached to the end of a wire, into a jar of the 
gaii and directed attention to the bright ignition resulting ; similar 
isxperimentt were afterwards tried with sulphur and phosphorus 
witli increasingly brilliant incandescence. 

To contrast oxygen with nitrogen, the doctor lighted a taper 
and first plunged it into oxygen, when it burnt rapidly with great 
force; removal into a jar of nitrogen instantly extinguished it; 
wlule in atmospheric air, which, as we have seen, is a mixture of 
the two gases, the taper burnt quietly and with a steady flame. 


Oxygen. . Nitrogen, Common Air, 



Qtnet htaming 








THE doctor's LECTUBE. 77 


- Experiments prove that the action of oxygen on life is extremely 
important and powerful. 

If an animal be placed in a jar filled with atmospheric air, but 
cat off from fresh supplies, it speedily dies ; if placed in a jar of 
^ nitrogen it perishes immediately ; and if placed in pure oxygen 
^its breathing is accelerated ; no appearance of exhaustion is mani- 
"^fested, but on the contrary, violent excitement is exhibited. 

What changes occur with respect to the gases with which the 
-i jars were filled? 

In the first jar the oxygen is no longer to be found mixed with 
:: nitrogen, but is replaced by carbonic acid, a gas fatal to breathe 
€fven in very minute quantities. 

The gas in the second jar is unchanged; the animal having no 
power to breathe the gas. In the third jar, as in the first, carbonic 
acid gas takes the place of so much oxygen as may have dis- 

Oxygen, therefore, supports life energetically, and the use of 
nitrogen is, by dilution, to moderate its action. 

In what manner does oxygen act upon the animal being ? 

By the process of digestion, the crude food taken in at the 

month is prepared for the reparation and growth of the various 

parts of the body, and this altered matter is poured into the 

current of the blood on its passage from the remote parts of the 

system ; the mixture then enters one of the cavities of the heart, 

whence it is distributed over the lungs, and returning to the heart 

ag^n, is pumped through the arteries into every portion of the 

human frame. This blood, on leaving the heart, is of a bright red 

colour (arterial blood), while that which is about to enter the 

heart (venous blood), after its course through the body, is of a 

dark purple tint, the change in the lungs being from purple to 

red, and in the body from red to purple; this brightening and 

alteration in the colour indicate a change in its character, the 

importance and manner of which I will endeavour to make clear. 

In the case of a common fire, combustion of the friel does not 

take place, nor is heat given out, unless there is hoe access of air. 

78 mr fibst votaob. 

the oxygen of which is the active agent; in like manner to m- 
tain the warmth and energy of the animal system, a coEtmned 
combustion is being carried on in every part of the body. All 
food may be regarded as fuel, and the air in the lungs the acthe 
element in the combustion ; and as the carbon of fuel is conyertad 
into carbonic acid by its combination with oxygen, so likewue 
a large portion of the food we consume is ultimately changed 
into carbonic acid, which is prindpaUy removed from the body 
through the medium of the lungs in the act of respiration. 

The access of air to the blood, mixed with the recently digested 
food, is accomplished in the higher animals, as man, quadropedi 
and birds, by means of internal apparatus, termed lungs, by die 
minute subdivision of which organs a large surface is exposed to 
the air, and the blopd flowing through small vessels over the walla 
of the cavities discharges carbonic acid and absorbs oxygen. 

In fishes this aeration is effected by external organs, the gilb; 
the number of folds in these gills having the same effect as the 
small subdivisions of the limgs in causing the blood Tessels to be 
distributed over a large surface, thus exposing the blood to the 
action of the air dissolved in the surroimding water which bathes 
the gills. No doubt can be entertained of the general nature d 
the process which is carried on, although the intermediate steps 
may not be well imderstood. To illustrate the difference in the 
air before and afler passing through the lungs, the doctor inspired 
air through a tube leading from a jar of lime water, so that all 
the air passed through the liquid ; the lime water remained dear, 
showing that the air did not contain any perceptible quantity of 
carbonic acid; but the breath exhaled fh)m the lungs being 
similarly passed into lime water caused a turbidity, the carbonic 
acid in the breath combining with the lime and forming chalk, 
which gave the water a creamy appearance. 

In general, from fourteen to eighteen inspirations occur every 
minute in an adult; the average quantity of air taken in being 
about twenty cubic inches, so that nearly 20,000 cubic inches 
pass through the lungs in an hour„ or 266 cubic feet daily. 

THE doctor's lecture. 79 

I As about ten cubic feet of carbonic acid are daily thrown off 
u firom the lungs by every adult person, and as even in small quan- 
i. titles this gas is very injurious, it is most important that in all 
f places where large numbers of persons are accustomed to assemble^ 
J •rrangements should be made for securing free ventilation, a supply 
I of fresh air, and the removal of this gas so largely sent forth by 
: tech person in the act of breathing; otherwise depression, languor, 
I iaad ultimately death would result. 

When the quantity of carbonic add in the air accimiulates 
beyond a certain point, death from suffocation ensues. Thus, in 
drowning, carbonic acid cannot be exhaled from the lungs, nor 
oxygen inhaled, as required for the health and action of the human . 
system ; for scarlet or arterial blood is necessary to the due per- 
formance of the fimctions of the brain, and if dark coloured or 
venous blood be substituted even for a few minutes, it renders the 
brain insensible to the impressions made on the external organs, 
and incapable of transmitting the decision of the will to the 
muscles ; and the effect on the brain is such that it may not re- 
cover from the influence for half an hour, or even longer. More- 
over, the blood, which for a short period does actually pass through 
Uie heart, becomes more and more venous in character, and less 
in quantity than in its usual state, hence on one side of the heart 
tiie blood accumulates, and the power of that side ceases by over 
distension; the other side, from a deficient supply of oxygenised 
blood, loses its energy, and insensibility soon takes place, 
terminating in death. 

The remedy in such cases is to endeavour to renew the air in 
the lungs by blowing into them with the mouth or by a pair of 
bellows, or preferably, by a galvanic shock, which induces a 
natural inspiratory action, more efficient and not so dangerous as 
a forcible inflation of the lungs. 

This carbonic acid gas, of which we have spoken, is abundantly 
formed in the fermentation of beer, also in the fermentation of the 
mixture termed wash, previous to its distillation into alcohol, and is 
well known to miners as choke damp, from its suffocating property. 


The ezploBive gas, called fire damp, is a compound of carbon 
and hydrogen, and on ignition the carbon combines with the 
oxygen of the air in the mine, thus depiiving it of the life 
supporting element, and producing carbonic acid gas, which causes 
death in a very short period. Hence it is generally noticed ia 
mine explosions, that although ignition of the carburetted hydro- 
gen is the primary cause of the accident, the sufferers are more 
frequently suffocated than burnt. One melancholy case of death 
from this cause may be instanced, that of the Black Hole, in 
Calcutta, in which many human beings perished in a few hours 
from want of fresh air; and in very recent times instances have 
occurred of numerous deaths being occasioned by ignorant officers 
of ships fastening the door-ways of cabins in which, during gales, 
passengers had sought refuge, no precaution having been taken for 
the supply of fresh air. 

Being a very heavy gas, it may at times be escaped from, 
should presence of mind enable the person exposed to its influence 
to climb to some elevated spot, while he has strength ; just as in 
the Grotto del Cane, near Naples, where this gas issues naturally 
from a fissure in the rock, a dog being thrown in soon becomes 
insensible, from the absence of atmospheric air, while the taller 
human being is unaffected; so also in the fermenting rooms of 
distilleries this gas may be felt as a heavy pressure around 
the legs, although little or no difficulty in breathing may be 

Trade Winds. 

Within the tropics the globe is always subject to the nearly 
direct rays of the sun, and the intense heat rarefies the air, causing 
a constant upward current, which flows over on each side towards 
the poles, the cold air from the poles rushing under to supply the 
place of the air thus removed upward from the surface; there is 
therefore a continual interchange between the tropical and 
polar air. 



"It will be evident on inspection of this model of a globe," 
/oontinued the doctor, that by the rotation of the earth, a point on 
the equator, before it comes round again to the same position, must 


N. is the North pole. 

S. the South pole. 

The arrow at E. represents the hot air rising^^om 
the equatorial regions. 

The lower inner arrow at N. represents the course of 
the wind from the Arctic regions^ to replace the 
warm air rising from the surface of the earth at 
the Equator. But as the portions of the ghbe dis- 
tant from the equator do not travel so fast as the 
equatorial portions, the slow North air appears to 
come from the N.E. ; lience the winds are called 
N.E trades, and a similar action on the other tide 
of the Equator gives rise to the S.E. trades. 

The upper row of arrows represents the N.E. trade- 
winds, and the lower row tlte S.E. trade-winds. 

have travelled over a greater distance than anj point on the same 
meridian nearer to the poles ; (a meridian is an imaginary line 
passing through or cleaving the earth in a direction at right 
angles to any point on the equator; the line N.S. represents a 
meridian;) and as the air revolves with the earth, the equatorial 
portions have a more rapid impetus imparted to them than the 
polar portions; the result is, that the slow polar speed of the 
under-current of cold air, progressing towards the equator, does 
not allow it to keep up with the motion of the earth ; which, with 
all on its surface in the equatorial r^ons, rushes rapidly from 
west to east; therefore the current of air seems to come from the 
intermediate or north-east direction on the one side of the line, and 
Bonth-east on the other side ; these breezes, from their uniformity, 
have been designated trade winds. 

On the other hand, the hot air from the equator, as it advances 
towards the poles, cools and sinks down, but retaining the 
equatorial impulse it travels faster than the earth in the polar 
r^ons, and seems to rush past it; the result being a west wind, 
which is the prevailing wind in the high northern and southern 



We have seen that the wanner the air the more moistnre it 
can sustain. Now, the wind coming from the northern quarter, 
a cold region of the globe, holds but little yapoar in sospeDsion; 
on arriving at a warmer r^on its capacity fcft Taponr being 
increased, this air from the north has a tendency to absorb 
moisture from the hnman body rather than to impart it, hence it> 
feeling of dryness to the skin, and the absence of rain when it 
prevails ; on the contrary, the south wind, coming from a wanner 
climate, has imbibed more moisture than it can retain on its reach- 
ing our native colder regions, and thus in England we feel it as a 
soil moist air, and when it lasts for any length of time rain is 

In the southern hemisphere these conditions are reversed; tlie 
wind from the northern points of the compass coming fit)m the 
equatorial regions being now the warmer, and those frt)m the 
southern points of the compass are the colder, originating in the 
south polar regions; but as there is much more water in the 
southern hemisphere than in the northern, the air traversing over 
the sea towards the equator absorbs moisture in its passage, and 
consequently the south winds, though cold, are not so diy as the 
north winds in the northern hemisphere. 


Land and Sea Breezes. 




Breeze or -wind 

xram "tiie Seat 

Breeze or TTvind 

Iraxa the Land. 

Land hotfrwn absorption Sea 

of nin*4 raps— air above^ moderately 
being heated^ rises. toarm. 

Land cooled fi-om rapid radi' 8«a 

ation, air above cooM in con- moderatdf 

sequence^ and falls otUtoards tparm. 
to tkesea. 

THE doctor's lecture. 83 

In many situations these winds are of regular occurrence, and 
arise thus : — The land, during the day, becomes more heated than 
the sea, from its greater absorptive power, and the air above it 
being thereby warmed, rises, and to supply its place the cold air 
from the sea rolls in. to wards the shore, causing the sea breeze. 

On the decline of the sim the earth continues to radiate heat, 

but not receiving new supplies from the sun's rays, the land and 

the stratum of air above it speedily become cooler than the air 

on the surface of the neighbouring sea, water radiating heat less 

quickly; the warmer air over the sea is now the lighter and has 

a tendency to rise, and the colder air from the land rolls seaward 

to supply its place, thus causing the land breeze. 

« « * « * 

I will next proceed to discuss the principles upon which some 
of the instruments used at sea are foimded. 

The Barometer. 

** Observe this glass tube," said the doctor, it is thirty-four 
inches long and closed at one end ; I fill it with mercury and 
invert it in this basin, also containing that metal; the mercury in 
the tube falls to about thirty inches. 

Why does it descend, and why does it not descend lower? 

The history of this observation, and the discovery of the law 
upon which the phenomenon depends, are as follows: — 

The common pump (which I will describe afterwards) had been 
known for ages, but that the height to which it possessed the power 
of raising water was limited, does not appear to have been noticed, 
until some Florentine engineers, about the year 1649, found they 
<x)uld not by their suction pumps lift water above thirty-four feet 
from the sea level, and in their difficulty referred the matter to 
the philosophers of their time for an explanation and a remedy. 

It occurred to Torricelli that the then accepted explanation of 
the caofle of water rising in a suction pump, " nature^s abhorrence 
of a vacnmn," could not be true, because if true, nature had only 
a fitful or partial abhorrence of vacuity, inasmuch as however 


long the pipe might be, or perfect the exhaustion of air, it fiiiled 
to raise water higher than thirty-four feet. 

He conceived that the power which raised the water wodd 
sustain an equal weight of any other substance; thus, if a liquid 
twice as heavy as water were placed in the pipe, it ought only to 
be raised half as high ; if four times as heavy only one quarter 
the height, and so on in the same ratio. On employing mercoiy 
he found that that substance would not rise in an exhausted tabe 
more than thirty inches ; now mercury being thirteen and one- 
half times heavier than water, a colunm of that metal, thirtj 
inches high, is equal in weight to a colunm of water of the same 
diameter, thirty- three feet nine inches (nearly thirty-four feet), 
in height; it therefore was apparent to him that whatever the 
power might be, it developed a force equal to the weight of the 
column supported, of whatever substance that colunm might be 

He suspected that the explanation of the phenomenon was to 
be sought in the pressure, or as it may more strictly be termed, the 
elasticity of the atmosphere ; and to test the truth of this conjecture 
two experiments were instituted. 

Assuming the active force to be the atmospheric pressure, if 
the apparatus were carried up to the top of a mountain, the 
weight of air being less, the mercury balanced by that weight 
would also be less, and the metal would descend in the tube; and 
in accordance with this supposition it was found that on Mount 
St. Bernard the column of mercury fell to fifteen inches, its 
height at the sea level being about thirty inches. 

That it is the pressure of air which supports the mercuiy in 
the tube may be further manifested by breaking off the end of 
the tube, or opening the stopcock, the mercury then ebbs out into 
the basin, the air now pressing down the inside equally with the 
exterior mercury; the same result takes place if the whole appa- 
ratus be placed under the receiver of an air-pump, by which the 
air being removed no pressure can be exerted to sustain the 
coliunn of metal. 

THS DOCTOB's lecture. 


f Instruments for measuring the tension of the air, and however 
Taried their form may be, the principle is the same, are termed 
' barometers ; and from what we have seen it is evident that the 
mercury not only falls in the tube when conveyed tp a height 
above the sea level, but will vary with the changes to which the 
atmosphere is subject; hence the use of a barometer as an indicator 
or weather-glass. 

It is the change more than the actual indication which should 
be attended to; and, as a general rule, it may be taken that the 
rising indicates fair weather, the falling foul weather. In winter 
the rise indicates frost; and in frost, the fall, snow. An un- 
settled state of the barometer indicates changeable weather. A 
sudden fall indicates a storm ; because it shows a rarefaction of 
the air at that particular place; and by consequence the denser 
air fit)m the surroimding parts of the globe will rush in to fill the 
partial vacuity. 




t. 30 



The arrow indicates the 

line of pressure of the 



More minute changes are rendered 

observable to the eye by the pointer than 

could be noticed in the column itself. 




Wheel barometers have a tube holding the mercury, on the top 
of which is a float carrying a thread ; on the rise or fall of the 
mercury, the thread moves a small spindle, to which is attached 
a pointer, which indicates the changes on a dial like a clock- 

Heat Measurebs. 


We have spoken of the expansion of water by heat, I will now 
endeavour to explain the instruments by which we nieasure the 
force of heat. They are termed thermometers. 

The melting of ice, and the boiling of water at the sea level, 
afford convenient standards for the measurement of heat. 

This measurement is now usually effected by means of meremy 
in a small closed tube connected with a bulb reservoir, the expan- 
sion and contraction of the mercury measuring the increase or 
diminution of temperature. 

The space which the mercury traverses between the melting 
point of ice and the boiling point of water is divided into 180 
degrees, or parts, in English thermometers ; and into 100 parts 
in the thermometers used on the continent, and therefore termed 



Divided into 180 degrees 


—100 Boiling point of water. 

/ Divided into 100 d^irtes. 

lO MeUing point ofiou 

THB doctor's lecture. 87 

Thns, if the upper black line represents the height at which 
the mercury wonld stand in both tubes, if they were plunged into 
bcnling water, the height if placed in melting ice beiog marked by 
the dotted line, the intervening apace in A, the English, also called 
Fahrenheit's thermometer, is divided into 180 parts; and in B, the 
continental or centigrade thermometer, into 1 00 parts ; five degrees 
of centigrade are therefore equal to nine FahrenheiL 

It should also be obserred that the notation of the Fahrenheit 
tiiermometer begins at a lower point than the melting of ice, 
whereas the centigrade reckons from that pcmt. 

FahrtnieiL CtTitufriule, 

Scale begins • - - 32 beloir freezing At freezing. 
Freezing point * - 3S on the scale on the scale. 

Boiling point - - - 21! on the scale 100 on the scale. 

The Couuom Fdhp. 

By sucking a piece of tobacco-pipe 
or straw, one end of which is placed 
in water, the air &om the interior b 
withdrawn, and the Uquid flows up 
into the tube so exhausted of ur. 

The common pump depends for its- 
action upon this principle. 

From what has been previously aaid 
in reference to the barometer, it re- 
sults that if we exhaust a closed tube, 
one end of which is inserted in water, 
the pressure of the air in the interior 
of the pipe being removed, the ex- 
terior pressure of the atmosphere will 
force up the water to fill the vacuity; 
and this will continue until the water 
balances the atmospheric pressure, 
which it does when at the height of 
thirty-four feet in the exhausted tube. 


Let A be a close piston, with a valve attaehcsd bj a hinge; 
the piston connected by a rod with the handle C, working over 
a pivot P, and B a fixed collar with a valve, placed lower down 
the tube. 67 pressing down C we raise A, and a partial vacinun 
is caused between A and B, and the pressure of the exterior atmoB- 
phere causes the water to push up the valve B, and fill the inte^ 
mediate space ; on the ascent of the handle C, A descends, and the 
water between A and B closing the hinged valve at B bj its 
weight, can only escape by pushing open the valve A, and 
passing upwards; and on the pump-handle being again pulled 
down, the water above closes the valve A, and being lifted up bj 
the valve in its ascent flows out through the pipe D, and so on at 
every stroke. This kind of pump cannot raise water more than 
thirty -four feet above the sea level. 

The Compass. 

A certain mineral, whose chemical analysis showi it to consist 
principally of two oxides of iron, with a small quantity of quartz 
and alumina, possesses the power of attracting iron towards itself, 
or rather the two substances may be said to be mutuallj 
attractive. This mineral, the loadstone (Marinette or mariner's 
stone, as the minstrels sang it), originally found in Magnesia, in 
Asia Minor, whence its name, magnet, being placed in a small 
basin and floated on water or mercury, turns one end in the 
direction of the pole and the other towards the equator. 

This power of assuming a certain position, and of attracting 
iron, may be conferred upon several substances; the most impor- 
tant and useful being steel, especially that of fine grain, uniform 
in structure and free from flaws, such steel retaining its magnetism 
for a long period. Magnetic batteries are sometimes made so 
powerful, by combining several magnets, as to lifl more than four 
hxmdred pounds weight ; and when formed by induced magnetism, 
developed by a powerful galvanic battery, the strength is enor- 
mously increased. 

TBE doctor's LBCTOBZ. 89 

The magnetic force numifvsti itself aa twofold in its character, 
familiarly known as north and south polar magnetism ; each having 
the peculiar pn^rty of attracting the contrary and repelling 
■imilar magnelinn. Thus the north pole of one magnet attracts 
the sondt pole of all other magnetised bodies, and repels all north 

Magnetjsm may be conferred upon certain bodies temporarily, 
without contact, by the influence of what is termed indnctioa, by 
placing them near magnetised bodies, and to exhibit this effect 
soft iron, as the most easily susceptible of magnetism, may be 
couTeniently used. It is probable that all magnetic phenomena 
result from the indnctive action of the earth itself, which is a power- 
fully msgnetio body ; but this may perhaps be more apparent tdler 
we hare considered the principle of the mariner's compass. 

The oompasa ccnulsts of a magnetised bar of steel, termed the 
needle, turning freely on a pivot; a card is placed above and 
fastened to the needle, with which it therefore moves, and this 
card is divided by black lines into thirty-two points. 

This instrument is placed in a box covered with glass, the 
whole swinging with perfect freedom, and [K-eeerving a horiztmtal 



position, whatever inclination may be given to the ship by the 
waves. A black mark or line in the box shows the line of the 
keel or head of the vessel, and the point on the compass touching 
this mark indicates the direction in which she is sailing. The 
thirty-two points are as follows; and to be able to repeat these 
points rapidly in proper order is one of the first lessons of an 
apprentice, and is called '^ boxing the compass.'^ 


North by East 

North North East 

North East by North 

North East 

North East by East 

East North East 

East by North 


East by South 

East South East 

South East by East 

South East 

South East by South 

South South East 

South by East 


South by West 

South South West 

South West by South 

South West 

South West by West 

West South West 

West by South 


West by North 

West North West 

North West by West 

North West 

North West by North 

North North West 

Nwth by West 


At first it might be supposed that the compass points true 
north and south, but this is not correct; the magnetic poles not 
being in accordance with the north and south poles of the earth ; 
and the difference is known as the- variation of the compass. 

To detect these variations recourse is had to the Azimuth 
compass, a modification of the ordinary compass, and which we 
will now describe. 

By observation astronomers have arrived at the knowledge of 
the exact bearings of the sun from all places on the earth's surface, 
at its rising and setting, every day in the year ; and from this start- 
ing point the variation of the compass at any particular spot may be 
deduced. Thus, supposing the true position of the rising or setting 
sun to be known, if the traveller finds that by his compass the sun 
does not rise or set in the true astronomical direction, then he is 
also perfectly sure that the angle of difference is the error of his 
compass in that place. 

All that is required to be done is to observe carefully the 


directdon of the sun &t the moment of its rising or getting; the 
latter is generally chosen, being more easily watched. 

nmpau b^mf^tr^ bf M ttop ^ 

The centre of the sun is brought in a line with the fine wire in 
the centre of the upright frame B; the eye of the observer being 
placed Mt A, a stop fixes the compass at the moment of obser- 
▼ataon for careful reading off subsequently, and the pmnt of setting 
indicated l^ (he compass, compared with the astronomical directiour 
gives the variation of the instrument. This variation of the 
needle from the true north and south poles of the ear^ is about 
2i° west, at London, and 5^° at Boston, in the United States. 

Besides the tendency of the needle to point away from the 
esarth's north and south poles, notice of another Bingniar property 
ahonld not be omitted, — I refer to the dip. 

If a magnetised needle be supported on a pivot, and allowed 
free Tertical play, it will assume a position inclined to the horizon, 
Taiying greatly in different parts of the globe. 

Thus Sir J. Boss found the dijiping needle to stand vertical 
in 70" 5' 17' north latitude, and IU° 55' 18' west lonfiitude; this 
point is termed die magnetic pole; the corresponding pole in the 


southern hemisphere, where the needle would assume a perpen- 
dicular position, is calculated to be in 72? 85' south latitude, 
and 152° 30' east longitude. 

In London the needle now dips at an angle of about 69° SO*; 
and curiously to think upon, this variation and dip undergo great 
changes; the dip which in 1773 was 72? 19' in London, is now 
only 69*^ 30'; and the variation, which increased until 1818 
to 2G° 30' has since decreased. 

The mutual attraction of the magnet and iron, it is evident, 
must seriously interfere with the indications of the needle, when 
large quantities of iron are near the compass. 

As, however, this force obeys the law to which so many other 
physical forces are subject, of the power being inversely as the 
square of the distance ; in other words, a powerful disturbing force, 
acting at a foot distance from the needle, if removed to a distance 
of ten feet would only operate with one hundredth part of the 
power, and so on ; we have the means of ascertaining the amount of 
error by placing a compass high up above the deck, as for instance 
in the maintop, where the disturbing action of the whole hull of 
an iron vessel would be very small, almost nothing; whereas the 
influence of the great body of the earth remains the same, and 
thus the magnet would assume the position which it would take 
if iron were not present. 

Other interesting points on this subject might be noticed, but 
I will not weary you. 

I will now attempt an explanation of the motion given to a 
ship by the action of the winds. This depends upon a me- 
chanical principle that may be thus stated: the direction in which 
a body moves is the resultant of all the forces acting upon it. 

If air in motion is travelling in the same direction as it is 
desired the vessel should go, the force of the wind acting on the 
sails propels the ship, and the advance is in the ratio of the 
strength of the wind and the quantity of canvass spread, to the 
weight of the ship and cargo. 



Bj close hauling, or bracing up the yards as it is termed, a 
vessel may be made to move towards a point very different from 
that to which the wind is travelling; thus, suppose the ¥rind to 
blow in the direction from C to D, and a sail to be placed in the 

direction D £ ; let CD represent the force of 
the wind, and complete the parallelogram, 
having the side £ D parallel to the sail, and 
D F perpendicular to it The force of the 
wind represented by C D is equal by the laws 
of mechanics to two forces, one applied in the 
direction and represented in amoimt by C £, 
or KD, and one by CF or ED. Now it is 
evident that E D does not help to push the ship 
forward; all the progress must depend upon 
the force exerted by FD, but FD is itself 
SAILING on A WIND, j^^^ j^ ^^ ^^ j^ which it is desired the vessel 

should move, and by the same law of mechanics the force (F D) 
may be resolved into two — one as F H thrusting the ship side- 
way, the other FG (or HD, equal to FG) propelling the vessel 
in the line BA; and thus FG or HD represents the whole 
beneficial result from the force of wind represented by C D. 




But should the wind be more adrene, reoo ttra e is had to 
tacking, and a great deal of sailing remits in Terj fittle progress. 
Let us see how this occurs. 

Should the wind be coming finom A to B it *^m»w*^ fall upon die 
sail D so as to cause it to propel the ship Ibr w and ; but bj altering 
the Tcssers direction from B A to B I, the wind maj so blow upon 
D as to more the ship onward to I; on arriwl at whidi point, 
bj again tacking, and sailing to E, the wind now striking the 
ship and sails from the other side, and so contiiiiiiqg to efaange 
the Ucks. the point A may be at length reached, bat onlf ifter 
much extra distance has been trarersed and time lost. 

The interest created bv this lecture was kept up bj the doctor^ 
subsequently conducting a class for the study of his &vonrite 
science; and with the aid of the ingenious ship^s carpenter, he 
constructed several apparatus to illustrate his instructions; and 
before landinpr many of the passengers had acquired mucb 
valuable knowledge of the leading principles and fiicts of 
chemistry, electricity, and galvanism. 

Note to Page 67. — Strictlj speaking, steam generated at 212^ under 
the ordinary pressure of the atmosphere, occupies aboat 1700 times the 
space it filled when in the form of water. The experiments of Watt ^^e 
the result of one cubic inch of water yielding one cubic foot of steam, or 
1 728 inches. 


AKD CAPB town. 



" In me the spirit of the Cape behold. 
That rock bj joa the Cape ofTomieDts named, 
Bj Heptane's rage in horrid earthquake framed. 
When Jove's red bolta o'er Titan's offspring flamed 
With wide-stretched piles 1 gnard the pathless strand. 
And Afric's soDthern mound unmored I stand ; 
Nor Roman prow, nor daring Tjrian oar. 
E'er datbed the white wave foaming to mj shore. 
Nor Greece nor Carthage ever spread the sail 
On these, mj- seas, lo catch the trading gale. 
Ton, yon alone have dared to plough taj main, 
And with the hnman Toice disiorb mj loneaome reign." 


At Doon we were, by obBerratdon, mxty tniles distant from 
Cape Town, and two hoim Afterwards the pleasant sound of " land 
ho t" passed through the ship; and scanning the horizon we de- 


scried far off on the lee bow the dim mountains, looming out 
of the sea, in form as of a crouching lion, guarding its native 

Graduallj becoming more distinct, the two high lands, so well 
known as the Lion's Head and Rump, were approached; and the 
broad flat Table Mountain, against which Cape Town rests in quiet 
repose, opened out to view between the Lion's Head and the bold 
craggy cliffs of the Devil's Peak. 

Piloting our waj bj lead and eye, for night rapidly advanced, 
the good ship rounded the Lion's tail, formed by the long low slip 
of land called Green Point, jutting out into the sea, and the 
Petrel's anchor was dropped about a mile from the shore, on 
which the many twinkling lights told of the habitations of man; 
and we seemed as by a resurrection to have returned to the world 
of our fellows. 

Far up on the right of Cape Town other thousand glowing 
lamps suggested that a new city had arisen unknown to former 
visitors. It was the Mahometan city of the dead, whither, at the 
festival of the Ramazan, the living resort in grateful recollection 
of the departed faithful, and illuminate their tombs with lamps, 
and anoint the headstones with oil. 

Off Cape Town we lay for some days, during which we several 
times witnessed that curious appearance exhibited by Table 
Bay, of one portion being calm and quiet as a lake of glass, 
while at a few yards distance a hurricane may be blowing in all 
its fury. 

This phenomenon arises from portions of the Bay being pro- 
tected from the influence of violent inland winds by the mountains 
immediately surrounding Cape Town; whereas the gullies or 
openings between the mountains form outlets or tubes through 
which the wind rushes with accelerated force, the line of demar- 
cation between heavy squall and dead cahn, being almost mathe- 
matically defined. To prevent ships drifting to sea a second 


anchor is frequently dropped, rojal masts housed, and the lower 
yards pointed to the wind. 

Cape Town, with its hot dusty streets, running formally at right 
angles to one another, walled in with lines of whitewashed houses 
on either hand, is less agreeable on close acquaintance than pleas- 
ing from its water view, or as seen from one of the neighbouring 
mountains, the Lion^s Rump for instance, whence a noble prospect 
is obtained of Table Bay and the town, the sweep of ocean to the 
horizon, the distant mountains far off in the interior, and at the 
rear of Cape Town the nearer Table Mountain, on whose summit 
or adown whose sides the white mist and rain clouds linger, or roll 
in masses, becoming to the practised residents, as it puts on or 
removes its cloudy table-doth, or stands uncoyered, a grand 
natural indicator, by observing which the approaching weather is 
known. "The cloth is on the mountain,"* they will say; "we 
cannot do so and so to-day/' 

The nungled population of English, Dutch, Malays, and Africans, 
with their different customs, manners, and modes of dress, affords 
a large fiind of amusement and instruction to the resting 

Not cognizant of the rotundity of the globe, the ancients 
believed, from the increase of temperature as they advanced 
towards the south, that the limit of endurance would be arrived 
at, and imagination conjured up vast impassable regions of flame, 
in which only salamanders could exist. By slow degrees adven- 
turous navigators dispelled these phantasies, and pushed their 
researches ftirther and further along the African coast, until they 
resulted in the discovery of its limits by Bartholomew Diaz, in 
1486, and the weathering of its most southerly point by Yasco 
de Gama, in 1497. 

This sailing round the much dreaded Cape of Storms, or Lion 
of the Sea, as it was termed, solved the problem of an eastern 
sea route to India, and the Portuguese monarch gave to the land 

J^ ae nsRT vi 

A.T»cnc tat "por 1 toil. UK 
Mwrng •fiMi-iiinit 

* <* « 

MQKOftsi fir laif pmrmra JL if 
i£ tilt ^:^rtr ir 

i'^ r TSKzitf as k pars i£ auL £r ilhue ttu m. finope to die 

Ir SCTezz.bsr. ITrS. tbe oemoct vat takzsi hw ^e T'^g'M^, and 
rEs::cv£t. liit IniidL ir ls.±. On^eeA Janmrr. 1806, it 
TK i£sm i&ken br Scr Dn-id Bcr€ and Sb- Ho^ PopliaiiL and 
in 1^14 iras KsSid »: G7ea2 BdoESb. ir v^ok poneaian it remiiiis. 
BsBT & e:03c:T of r*=sdi jieocue. it is sue qsixie dear upon vbit 

T^os diej <^kicj2 take v^ ^siieiiie pover. 
t lo the Dutch as a ic& « li inent depot, 

be leas so to the British ships sailiii^ 

The exponadoD of wool to EziglaDd has gradnaDj and laigelj 
increased: besides which the Cape eoloiij €arnes on an extrai&Te 
export trade to the Mauritiiis in butter, oom, and othtf pit)diioe. 

In the season, cattle-wagons fi>[nn the np-coontij Jarma co&Tey to 
Gape Town wool and wine; and these rough stiong wagons have to 
be dragged orer roads which nerer draamed of MiM*a^^m^ and 
throng dense sand diifis. 


To accomplish sach joiiTiieT&. as the fanners possess cattle out 
c€ nmnber, and small wirv horses in abundance, it is not at all 
unusual to see twenty or twenty-four fine black oxen or small 
horses, two abreast, attached to one of these picturesque strongly- 
built vehicles. A Hottentot, mounted on the box, holds the 
reins, while a companion sits by his side flourishing a tall bamboo 
xody to the end of which is fastened a long hide^thong; and with 
peculiar skill, energy, and self-complacency, this ** whipper-in '* 
exercises his function of arousing the attention of any idle, non- 
exerting hone or ox. 

Assembling on board the last evening of our stay, for vre 
purposed sailing the following dawn, we sat and talked on deck 
in the cool clear moonlight, which shone on the glistening waters 
of the spacious bay, and played with a calm sober whiteness on 
the houses of Cape Town; the background of the great mountains 
with their intense shadows throwing up with sharp distinctness 
tbe rows of white buildings composing the city. 

The faint outline of Robben Island, the home of Cape convicts, 
we could just trace seaward; and the solemn quietude of the 
night was disturbed only by the splash of oars, as visitors to the 
shore returned to their anchored vessels in the bay, and by the 
sonorous ring of the many ships* bells striking the half* hours, 
as they- rolled round. 

Our thoughts and conversation turned upon the land of our 
temporary sojourn, and in imagination we coasted round Africa, 
scorched with the warm kisses of hot Sol, and discussed its various 
points of attraction. 

Foremost stands Egypt, cradle of civilization, nurse of the 
sciences, whose history, like its own Sphynx, is an eternal enigma, 
and of an interest as teeming as the prolific life of its own Nile 
valley. Gazing upon a resplendent starry sky through a dimless 
atmosphere, the motions of the heavenly host were noted by 
her vigilant night- watchers ; and the annual obliteration of land 


boundariee bjr the overflowing of the Nile induced tlie ftccnnlc 
ctndj of the reUtioiia at lines, angles, areas, and quantities; *ad 

the geometrical principles established and taught by Egyptian 
sages have become part of the learning of all time. 

Nor were the arts less cultivated ; Egyptian architectnie d 
colossal proportions, imbued with a soknm believing spirit, hu 
been the vronder and admiration of every succeeding age; W 
how grateful must have been the retreat from the intense glaie ^ 
a oloudleBB noon-dsy sun into the dark shadows and reoesKS of 
the massive temples, over whose portals the mysterious wingtd 
globe and asp, emblems of the power and wisdom of the Eternal 
God, proclaimed to all, tlie living faith of the temple builders; 
whilst the rich harmony of the colouring, and the serene repose 
of the majestic statues which adorned them, testify of the poirer 
to realize the sublime daring conceptions of genius. 

Agricultural plenty blessed the happy land ; so much so, that 
the liberated Israetitea, forgetting their hard toil in slavery, loathed 
the " bread of heaven,'" and desired the Hcehpots of Egypt; and 


''ooni in Egypt** u to this day synonymous with abundance; 
and sayedi the p ro verb of the waters wherein dwelleth Hehemoth, 
** he who hath not drank of the sacred Nile hath not known 

As the Tohnne of time unrolled, the grandeur of Egypt 
declined— «iiooimiliing to the prowess of Alexander. It ailer- 
WBTds became a province of the Konion Empire; yet in decay, its 
genhifl asaaming the form of the queen of beauty, blazed forth 
again ibr a moment, scattering a dazzling radiance un one more 
page of its ri^gnlar bistory. Associating to herself all tlie gor- 
geous tiMtefhl appliances of Eastern luxury, with music and 
gleesome attendants, in her gilded barge, propelled by silken sails 
and silver oars, Cleopatra, conscious of her power, went forth 
tD meet the stem conquerors of savage Scythia, warlike Gaul, 
ind fierce Britain; and successively these loftiest, hardiest Roman 
warriors forgot duty, patriotism, and their own high heroic fame, 
and yielding to her all-powerful fascinations, spent whole years 
in the heaven of voluptuous pleasure. 

And now — ^fallen how low! — the dwellers among these mighty 
relics, the beauty of whose ideal they do not comprehend, con- 
tentedly live in utmost ignorance of their history. 

The passenger who had thus spoken had scarcely concluded, 
when a youth, whose family was emigrating just at the period 
of his retirement from a public school, exclaimed, ^^ On the north 
coast of this Africa stood Carthage, founded by that classic queen, 
Dido, about whom Virgil wrote so many puzzling verses. Long 
the rival of Rome, this Tyrian colony contended with hej for 
the mastery of the seas and the sovereignty of the world; the 
heel of the Roman, however, at last pressed it out of independent 
existence. No thanks to Master Eneas and Mistress Dido for the 
many troubles I have seen on their account. The ancients seem 
to have lived only to puzzle us boys with, what Doctor Plumo said 
I should never accomplish, the ' scanning' of their interminable 


lines in praise of mythical heroes. Small good to me/ 1 ween, 
even had I succeeded in tripping the measures elegantly to his 
perfect satisfaction. . And then the long histories of their ever- 
lasting wars, in which now the Romans invaded Carthage, — ^and 
now the Carthaginians invaded Italy, — swaying to and fro with 
alternate success, like a rolling ship, first a-port and then a-star- 
board. More pleasant far to read the wars of Napoleon, or the 
sea-fights of Nelson, ^ Robinson Crusoe,* ' the Last of the Barons/ 
or ^ the Pathfinder,' by the aid of the candle provided by our good 
friend and favourite the housemaid Mary, and which we hid in 
our box amongst our shirts, and lighted when the masters had 
retired to bed." 

^^ You naughty, sarcastic fellow, Charles," said the last speaker's 
sister, to talk so disparagingly of those ancient writers, from 
whom have been derived, papa says, nearly all the noble 
thoughts which have actuated heroic, patriotic men in modem 
times. And however slightingly you may apeak of this northern 
part of Africa, it is worthy, in my opinion, . of particular re- 
membrance as being the region in which. St. Augustin lived and 

The influence of his mother, Monica, a woman of sterling 
goodness, added to the ministry of St. Ambrose, enlisted the 
talents of the young orator in the cause of Christianity; and 
thenceforward this ornament of the church laboured in Africa, 
where he was born ; his genius, unwearied zeal, and truthfulness, 
powerfully tending to spread the doctrines of the cross ; and suc- 
cessful in his lifetime by his eloquence, his written works have 
exercised no less an influence in following ages. The Vandals, 
overrunning Italy, next invaded Africa; and the aged prelate, 
refusing to quit his flock and escape by flight, and fearing 
that Hippo, whose bishop he was, might fall into the hands of 
the enemy, prayed that God would free his servants from their 
foes, or take him from the world unto himself. During the third 
month of the siege this last prayer of the venerable saint was 


answered, for be dred; and such was his fame that the rude 
conquerors, when they took the town, spared his library and 

^* What a parson you would have made, sister,^ said Charles, as 
he impressed half-a dozen kisses on her lips. 

" I fear you will never be a St. Augustin, Charley," said the 
boy's father, laughing. 

'< On the general breaking up of the Roman Empire,*' began an 
old. half-pay naval officer, the native inhabitants of this fertile 
country of Northern Africa, rich with com harvests, with well- 
planned Roman roads, and colonies, recovered their possessions, 
extending from Atlas, with cloudy brow and sandy feet, outwards 
to the sea. In turn they were harassed and conquered by Arab 
hordes. Mounted on £eet horses, and armed with lance and spear, 
these sons of the desert, to-day unseen and unexpected, at night 
scourged and swept towns and villages ; on the morrow a cloud of 
dust on the mountains, rising towards heaven in the bright sun* 
shine, alone betrayed the proximity of these Pegasian centaurs. 
The expulsion of the Moors from Spain greatly increased the 
Mahometan power in Africa, and these ruthless Vikings of the 
Mediterranean became the deadliest enemies of all Christian 
captives No fewer than twenty thousand Christian slaves were 
liberated on the destruction of Tunis, by Charles the Fifth, in 
1535; and when driven by the conqueror from that place, the 
Turkiish followers of Barbarossa retreated to Algiers, their hand 
being against every man. The horrors of Algerine slavery, so 
eloquently set forth by St. Vincent de Paul, and Cervantes, 
aroused the indignation of Europe; and several attempts were 
made with varying success t<> put an end to the piracy and 
slavery- of the Algerines. At last the grand attack made by 
Lord Exmouth, on the 28th August, 1816, ended in such a 
complete discomfiture of the barbarous hordes, as to compel the 
cessation of the practice. 

Some evening I will relate to you all the particulars of that 


fJQ^t; we gftfe it tibe enemy right well I can assure you; it was 
hot work while it kated, and our noble Admiral, generally a mild 
man, showed himself a perfect fire-eater on that occasion. 

The hnirs old sailor was evidently wanning with his recol- 
ketions, and he would doubtless have then 

'^Foo^ hu batdes o'er again,'' 

for our edification, had not a young girl of tiie company diverted 
Ub atfeentioa by inquiring whether, in the course of his cruises on 
lite Aftieaa ooast, he had erer met with the female warriors of 
whom she had tecfently been reading? 

TraditioD, omtisued the offioer, had left acoounts of nations 
ef female wanion, Amasons, but the relation had been deemed 
^Angrdiieid; it was reserved to Africa to present to the world the 
fiiring resKty. AltiuraghlhsfenotpersonaUy seen them, several 
bflkers of our service, in thdr communications with the black 
natioDS of Afiioa, have become aoquainted with the extraordinary 
ftet thai one portion of the army of Hbe king of Dahomey is 
eonipo e ed of some thoosands of Amaaons. These female foot- 
gaaidsyiblly equipped as soldiers, with bristling musket, sword, 
ttsfl 'dob, ornamented with ribbons, and adorned with human 
dedBa hiig^ng ftom the girdles of their scarlet tunics, have 
fheir ftmafe-effciMi who aie fhmished like the male troops of 
i^ same e oimtiy j wiih stools of office, drums, oolours, and 
^tanllsii adomed with dndls and jawbenes. 
•' ■^'Veroeioaaitf tigenyAese AinaaonwarrionB, whose milk is gall, 
Mij^ ill the nnmiTlBiiffm of prisoner viotins, hundreds of whom 
«iie •Borifioed to gratify Ihe desire fer blood by tibe multitude, who, 
en ^blio oeeasiaos, with load yella demand of the king to be fed 
wiA deaih, fbr Aej are huogiy. The Uood of the victims is 
msnA to the Fstishe, or God, the head to the king, the body 
belongs to this army; and these aie prett7 weU all the parti- 
volars I can give you of this cmioas army. 

^ From all I can gather, remarked the supercargo, we are 
misttih> with regazd-to this oomlinent. 


Central Africa, hitherto supposed to be full of 

** Antres vast and deserts wild," 

has been ascertained by recent travellers to possess rich streams 
flowing through fertile vales, abounding in animal life ; the springing 
lion, stately elephant, snorting zebra, and the heavy hippopotamus, 
with herds of the graceful spring-bok; gaily plumaged birds 
thickly people the furest trees, and the rivers teem with fish of 
YarioTiB kinds; in fact, the interior uf this hitherto inaccessible 
continent promises to open out rich sources of commerce, and 
mutual advantage to its rude inhabitants and to civilized man. 

And if the reports be true in reference to coal, I think before 
long I shall try a speculation in that article from the east coast 
rivers, with a view to the supply of our growing Indian steam 
fleet with that necessary article. 

'' Amongst the animals, chimed in a little fellow who had been 
attentiyely listening to the conversation, you have forgotten the 
big cattle, of which we have seen so many used in dra^idng the 
wine-wagons, and the funny sheep whose fat is all in their tails. 
The tail of the one our butcher killed this morning weighed ten 
pounds, a solid lump of fat ; and the storeman said that sometimes, 
when very fat, the farmers fit little wheeled carts for the sheep 
to carry their tails on, but perhaps that was a joke. I wonder he 
did not say that they sometimes made wheelbarrows for the long 
noses of the elephants. 

A pause ensued, broken at last by the Minister, who had been 
for some time sitting in thouglitful silence. 

" Strange to think, said he, that at the very time that all 
Europe was standing aghast at the horrible tales of Europeans 
being doomed to slavery in Africa, in another part of that con- 
tinent the converse was being enacted with tenfold cruelty. 

After the discovery of America and the West India islands, the 


aboriginal inhabitants were speedily for the most part either 
destroyed in war or worked to death by the fierce conquerors 
. who, being themselves unable to endure the heat of the climate, 
and perform the rigorous labours demanded for the mining and 
field operations necessary to realize those dreams of riches which 
had instigated their invasions, regarded Africa as a hunting ground, 
or preserve, whence to procure human beasts of burden; and 
thousands of negroes were yearly torn from their homes with 
violence ; homes still, rude as they might have been ; and made to 
serve with bitter bondage. Parents separated from children — 
husbands from wives — ^brothers from sisters. 

Not content with men-stealing themselves, the slavers tempted 
and urged on the native tribes to wage war upon one another for 
the purpose of making prisoners to sell into slavery. 

Packing the wretched beings as bales of goods, not even 
regarding them as air-breathing animals, the horrors of the 
* middle passage,' as the voyage from Africa to America was 
termed, caused the death of a large proportion of the slaves. 

The outraged sympathies and feelings of many Christians in 
England were at length aroused by the iniquities of this source 
of wealth; and, after a lifetime spent in the agitation of the 
question, the noble band of men who had devoted themselves to 
the removal of this blot on the nation, achieved the high moral 
result of inducing the British people and parliament to buy up 
and liberate all the slaves in the possession of English colonists ; 
and the unexampled spectacle of a nation taxing itself to the 
amount of twenty millions sterling to accomplish the pure purpose 
of liberating captive men, without committing pecuniary injury 
upon the slaveholders, was exhibited in the year of God's grace 
and Britain's glory, 1833. 

By an Act of the British parliament, dated the 28th August, 
1833, was this great social question settled, and the twenty 
millions of money appropriated amongst the following nineteen 


colonies, in proportions according to the number of registered 
slaves, and the average price in each colony. 

Bermuda Islands Jamaica 

Bahama Islands Honduras 

Virgin Islands Antigua 

Montserrat Nevis 

St. Christopher's Dominica 

Barbadoes Grenada 

St Vincent's Tobago 

Saint Lucia Trinadad 

British Guiana Cape of Good Hope 


Upwards of 630,000 slaves, after varying short terms of 
apprenticeship, were made absolutely free; in consequence of 
this legislative enactment, imique in the World's History, at an 
average cost to Great Britain of about thirty-one pounds per 
human body and soul ; and the plain Saxon of the Act says, that 
* from and after the said First day of August, 1834, Slavery 
shall be and is hereby utterly and for ever abolished, and declared 
unlawful throughout the British Colonies, Plantations, and Pos- 
sessions abroad.* 

. The work, I regret to say, is only half done — not half done — 
for while one portion of Christendom has repudiated slavery, 
others have not only reconciled themselves to the existence of the 
fact of slavery as a disease or an evil to be removed as quickly 
and judiciously as possible, but have cordially embraced, stre- 
nuously defend, and lovingly cherish the evil as their good, and 
' believe the lie.' 

Oh I American brothers, continued the Minister, in his 
enthusiasm, Why will you not follow England's glorious example? 
Until that happy time, furl your spangled banner, lower it to half- 
mast for a while, paint those stars darkly with blackest Styx, crape 
them in deepest mourning, nor longer let those fair emblems 


of purity and light range side by side with the red stripes of 

Shame not with such fruit the noble principles of your pilgrim 
fathers, who, for conscience sake, sailed * Westward Ho I' they 
knew not whither, taking joyfully the spoiling of their goods, and 
singing with holy decision, 

* We never will bow down.' 

And thou, proud Spain! eldest, Most Faithful daughter of the 
Catholic Church, can the vicegerent of God teach thee no better 
than to barter human woes for gold, blurring beauteous Cuba 
with foulness? 

Extreme Protestant America, in whose hand is the " little book 
open," is it not written therein that " God hath made of one blood 
all the nations of the earth;" and though the written book is 
priest-clasped to thee, extreme Catholic Spain, God's First Volume 
of unbound Nature is open to all, and therein thou mayest learn 
that the fair orange blossom spreading forth its pure beauty 
towards heaven, yet crusheth not out the dark blood of the lowly 

On that day which cometh to man once in the space of mortal 
life, when the heart is tuned to heaven's music, my soul's ear 
caught the tones of that happy harmony ever rising from the 
rolling spheres, hymning praise to the Eternal. In one sublime 
movement of that rich flowing song, the accents melted away 
to a delicious rest. Just then a piercing wail, " Oh, Lord, how 
longl" from five millions of bond slaves, disturbed that holy 
pause, and the choir of myriad attendant angels, over whose being 
a quickly passing celestial gloom cast its shadowy mantle, turned 
with earnest look and drooping wings towards the throne of God, 
whence, amidst the saddest silence of the Almighty's thunders 
issued a voice, 

** Vengeance is mine, I will repay it 1 ** 

And the hosts of God bowed low in reverent worship. 




" Strangest of all. 
Towered tbe Great Harry, crank and Ullt 
With bows and stern high in tbe air, 
And balconica hanging hero and there, 
And signal lanterns and Sags aSoat." 


Oott second officer was the model of ai 

rlisli gentlen 


seaman, handsome, intelligent, quiet, cool, and bold; and under 
such a tutor it was very natural that the fair voyagers should 
embrace the opportunity afforded by our passage through a clear 
tropical atmosphere to prosecute their astronomical studies, al- 
though by some mysterious process it invariably occurred that 
their evening inquiries concerning Rigel, Betelgeux, Cassiopeia, 
the Great and Little Bear, the Milky Way, or the Magellan clouds, 
became intermingled with equally agreeable discussions upon 
subjects nearer than the stars. 

With assumed gravity he stated that his adoption of a seafaring 
life had arisen from an extreme sensitiveness either on his own 
part or that of his father, he could not exactly say which: his 
fether, a clergyman of the Established Church of England, had 
been desirous that Tom should follow the same profession ; but 
Tom, whenever he could escape from his prescribed studies, was 
sure to be found rambling about the harbour of the seaport 
included within the extensive boundaries of his parent's large 

In vain the good man reiterated his objections to the sea; but 
what was to be done, said the merry-hearted officer, as he reclined 
over the ship's side, discoursing with some fair damsel upon the 
radiant stars swiftly sailing in the sea of heaven above us and 
reflected in the glittering phosphorescent waters below ; I never 
could get beyond " Dearly beloved " ii; the prayers, without rest- 
ing; which beseeming pause, in my opinion, the governor con- 
strued into a wicked halt, saying that I made the young women 
titter. At last the good old gentleman, God bless him, told me 
I was an incorrigible fellow and must go my own course, and so 
he dismissed the thought of my becoming a clergyman, much to 
my satisfaction. 

Now you do not expect me to believe all that, replied the 
young listener. 

Half a point to windward of your course, called the officer 
to the steersman ; mind your weather helm. 


" Aye, aye, sir," echoed the man at the wheel. 

Then you will permit us to inspect your portfolio, pleaded 
the fair speaker. I am sure you will not refuse. 

It contains nothing but rude sketches of ships, copied from 
various sources, as I may have happened to meet with them, 
replied the officer. 

And what more interesting to us than ships and their crews, 
added the sparkling-eyed girl, with sly emphasis. 

As you so command, rejoined the officer, my scraps shall 
be at your service to-morrow evening, with such explanatory 
notices as in my reading and observation I may have thought 
worthy of being jotted down; and the gallant sailor, as the 
attractive astronomer descended the companion-stairs, raised his 
silver-banded cap, and lovingly wished her pleasant rest, a rather 
impossible matter, while she heard his footsteps overhead as he 
paced the deck in the first watch. 

The following evening, while we were seated around the large 
table in the saloon, the promised portfolio was produced; and 
during the examination of the drawings the skilful draughtsman 
read from his note-book the following memoranda, in illustration 
of the subject and the sketches. 

Egyptian Boats. 

" All the learning of the Egyptians," such is the testimony of 
Sacred Story to the civilization of Ancient Egjrpt, abundantly 
confirmed by Profane History ; and if we except the claims of the 
Chinese, who, in all cases, have a convenient handful of centuries 
to throw into the scale whenever the period of any invention or 
discovery is in question, we may assign the birth of science. 



commerce, and navigation to this central junction land or key- 
stone of three continents. By means of the paintings on the 
tombs of the Egyptian sovereigns, modern travellers have been 
enabled to ascertain some of the particulars of their maritime 

It appears that many of the boats used by the ancient Egyptians 
were made of osiers, bound together with bands of papyrus 
stalks. Pliny informs us that the materials used in Egypt in the 


manufacture of boats were the papyrus, rush, and reed; and 
vessels of bulrushes are mentioned by Isaiah ; nor will it be for- 
gotten that Moses is stated to have been exposed in an ark or boat 
of bulrushes. 

It appears also that the war-galleys were manned by a 
part of the military class amongst the Egyptians; a certain 
number of whom was speciaUy trained to this service; and it 
should be remembered that in ancient times the distinction which 
now obtains between naval and military leaders did not exist. 

These galleys had on each side throughout the whole length of 
the vessel a wooden bulwark sheltering the rowers, the handles of 
the oars passing through holes in the lower part; archers were 
placed in the raised poop and forecastle, and the cachesium, or 


crow's neat, &t the top of the mast, was generally filled with 

On advancing to meet theenem^, the sail was used unUl within 
■ iihort distance of the foe, and then reefed or furled; the rowers 
now plied their oars, propelling the galley towards their opponent, 
the steersman endeavouring to strike with the bows the side of the 
enemy's vesseL 

Some of the war-canoes had many rowers, and were fiimished 
with a lai^ square sail, and the mast, originally constructed of 
two limbs of equal length, was afterwards composed of one tall 

The Phieniciahs. 
Dwelling in a prolific valley, through which ran the silvery 
Stream of the Nile, as the spinal marrow of the land, con- 
ferring abundance and vigour on the nation, the fluviatile 
Egyptians did not cultivate foreign commerce so much as some 
other nations whose sea-board was more extensive; and of all the 
people thus situated the Fhcenicians were most noted for their 
Taried and remote trade; even to the British Islands, known as 
the Cassiterides, did their vessels resort for tin and lead; and 
from the luminous statements of the prophets Isaiah, Jeremiah, 
and Ezekiel, we may form some idea of I'liucniciau commerce. 


Sidon enjoyed the highest reputation for naval skill; although 
of the form, size, or mode of rigging of their vessels nothing is 
known; but like our own East Indiamen of the last century, or 
the Spanish galleons of a previous age, they were equipped for 
war as well as for trade. 

We may form some estimate of the perfection to which these 
ships had been brought, by the observations which Xenophon 
causes Isomachus to make while discoursing on the advantages of 
order. " The best and most accurate arrangement of things I 
think I ever saw was when I went to look at the great Phoenician 
ship; for I saw the greatest quantity of tackling disposed in 
the smallest stowage. You know that a ship comes to anchor, 
and gets under weigh by means of many wooden instrimients 
and many ropes, and sails by means of many sails, and is armed 
with many machines against hostile vessels, and carries about 
with it many arms for the crew; and all the apparatus which men 
use in a dwelling-house, for each mess. Besides all this, the 
vessel is filled with cargo which the owner carries for his 
profit. And all that I have mentioned lay in not much greater 
space than would be found in a chamber large enough con- 
veniently to hold ten beds. All things too lay in such a way 
that they did not obstruct one another, so that they needed no 
one to seek them ; could easily be got together, and there were 
no knots to be untied, and cause delay if they were suddenly 
wanted for use. 

" I found the mate of the steersman, who is called the prow's 
man, so well acquainted with the place of each article, that even 
when absent he could tell where everything lay, as one who has 
learnt to read, could tell the number and order of the letters in 
the name of Socrates. 

'^ I saw this man examining at an unoccupied time everything 
that is of use on board a ship; and on my asking him the reason, 
he replied, * Stranger, I am examining whether anything is 


out of order, for it will be no lime lo look for what is 
wanting, or put to right whut is awkwardly placed, when a storm 
arises at sea.'" 

The Romans. 
The peculiarity of the Roman character led them to foimd 
colonies, to form settlements, and institute municipalities, rather 
tbaa to the prosecution of trade, hence their vessels were more 
deNgned for war purposes than for commerce; and the following 
sketch of a Komau galley, taken from tlie ruins of Pompeii, may 
convey some idea of the usual form of their ships. 

The Ancient BiuTom. 

On throwing a stone into a pool, we readily observe the first 
weU-defined narrow circles of agitated water; gradually tha 
expanding rippUng wave marks larger and larger curves, until at 
the edge of the irregularly boundtd, far-off shore, the circle has 
become so great and broken that the portion which we are watch- 
ing ceases to si^gest the original cause. 

Without further moralizing as to the oak springing from an 
acorn, I would remark that in the following quotation from an 


ancient author, the peculiar national tendency of the British to 
engage in commerce is indicated, and this implanted mental con- 
stitution, like the stone in the pool, originating hoth nurov and 
large circles of trade, ia traceable in the Ancient Britoa as in the 

"Whom either Ind obejs." 
" Beneath this promontory," says our author, speaking of Cape 
Finieterre, " spreads a vast gulf in which rise out of the 6ea the 
Csasiterides, rich in the metals tin and lead. The people are 
proud, clever, and active, and all are engaged in cares of com- 
merce. They furrow the wide rough atr^t, and the ocean abound- 
ing in sea-monsters, with a new speciea of boat ; for they know 

not how to frame keels with pine or maple, as others use, nor to 
construct their curved barks with fir; but strange to tell, they 
always equip their vessels with skins joined together, and ofton 
traverse the salt sea in a hide of leather." 

And Pliny remarks, " The coracle is made of wickerwork, 
round which leather is sewed." 


The Venetians. 

On the decline of the Roman Empire, when to be a Roman 
citizen ceased to be a panoply of security, the dwellers in cities, 
no longer members of the one great Roman state, banded them- 
selves together more closely for mutual defence against the bar- 
barous hordes which, on the breaking up of the Empire, overran 
the rural districts; and foremost amongst these municipalities 
ranked Venice, so advantageously situated on the great border 
district of the Eastern and Western worlds. 

During the crusades the rude nations of Western Europe became 
acquainted with the luxuries of the East; and returning to the 
cold damp nortli, carried with them specimens and glowing recol- 
lections of silks, carpets, perfumes, and metal work, previously 
unknown to their unskilful countrymen. 

Venice had succeeded in attracting to itself a large share of the 
trade of conveying the warriors and stores to and from the Holy 
Land; and following up its advantages, by d^ees became the 
depdt, — the great storehouse, — the mart whence its rich mer- 
chants, joining hands *' over a vast,*' supplied the wants of all 

The high mercantile position of Venice at the period referred 
to is indicated by the fact of Shakspeare giving to one of his 
immortal plays the title of " The Merchant of Venice," and thus 
are set forth the commercial transactions of the hero : — 

" He hath an argosy bound to Tripolis, another to the Indies ; 
I imderstand moreover upon the Rialto, he hath a third at 
Mexico, a fourth for England, — and other ventures he hath 
squandered abroad. But ships are but boards, sailors but men; 
there be land-rats and water-rats ; water-thieves and land- thieves — 
I mean pirates ; and then there is the peril of waters, winds, and 
rocks. The man is, notwithstanding, sufficient." 

The Christian world was, moreover, indebted to the maritime 


prowess of the Venetians for its successftil opposition to the 
repeated assaults of its formidable Moslem foe. 

To the wide-spread and large trausactiona of the Venetians we 
owe the introduction of the system of banking; this peculiar 
feature of modem commerce being the result of a deep felt neces- 
sity for some mode of itdjustiog the balance of trade arising from 
the operations of indirect barter. Sea-power, commerce, wealth 
and intelligence, caused this small republic to assume and main- 
tain, for many ages, a political importance in Europe quite un- 
known to many other states of much greater magnitude; and its 
characteristic magnificence and pride are notorious. 

" The exhiHiBtlesa East 
Poured in her lap all gems inapBrkling showers; 
In purple was she robed, and of her feast 
Monarchs partook, and deeitieil tlieir dignity iDcrcascd." 

In the Bucentaur, the state galley of the Republic, yearly, on 
the feast of the Ascension, the Doge and the civic authorities of 
Venice visited the mouth of the Adriatic, where the ceremony of 
wedding the city to the ocean was performed by dropping a ring 


into the sea, the marriage formula being these words, " We wed 
thee with this ring in token of our true and perpetual so- 

3?his ceremony is traceable to a victory obtained over the 
Turks in 1177 by the Venetians, who on their victorious return 
were presented by Pope Alexander III. with a ring, which was 
subsequently used by the Doge on the anniversary of the victory; 
and the curious custom was annually observed until the close of 
the last century. 

Other nations bordering the sea-coast of Europe, having 
acquired the knowledge of the Mariner's Compass, were, in the 
meantime, extending the art of navigation; and the English, 
Spaniards, and Dutch stood prominently forward in discovery 
and the opening out of those new sources of trade which this 
guiding instrument, the compass, rendered accessible. 

One of the most curious vessels of the early English construc- 
tion was the renowned man-of-war, the Great Harry, built by 
Henry VIL, a sketch of which is placed at the beginning of this 

Merchant ships were gradually increased in size; and in the 
18th century the vessels belonging to the East India Com- 
pany were built so large and strong, and carried cannon of such 
weight and number, which the officers and men knew so well 
how to fight, that often these vessels, richly laden with silks, tea 
and other oriental produce, tempting prizes to the fleets of our 
enemies, did not hesitate to accept battle, and not merely repulsed 
but frequently succeeded in destroying the foe. 

The requirements of trade and increasing intercourse between 
nations have led to the construction of still greater vessels, until 
they are now estimated by the thousands of tons they can carry. 

Modern Steam-vessels. 
Towards the end of the last century Mr. Watt made the im- 


poTtant iaventiong which have immortalized his name, in adaptiog 
and employing ag a motive force the property poBsessed by water 
of expanding by the application of heat into a vapour, steam, 
occupying in that state a much larger space than when in the 
liquid condition. 

At firat the invention was applied to engines upon land, but 
Ur. Patrick Miller, of Edinburgh, who had experimented upon 
propelling vessels by manual labour without sails or oars, was 
induced, at the suggestion of Mr. Taylor, to fit up a boat with a 
steam engine, made by Mr. William Symington. 

The firat steam voyage was accomplished by means of an engine 
working one paddle, in the space between a double beat, the 
experiment being tried on a lake at Dalawintan, in Nithsdale, on 
the 19th October, 1788. 


The principle established by this small, crude, but highly suc- 
cessful experiment has since developed into a system of locomo- 
tion infinitely beyond what its most sanguine promoters could 
have conceived ; and the introduction of a new form of the instru- 
ment of propulsion, viz., the worming through the water by fans 
or blades, shaped in the form of portions of the thread of a 


screw, in lieu of beating against the waves by floats, fitted on the 
periphery of a wheel, has brought a still further element of 
advantage into the question, the line of work of the screw being 
always in the direction of the head of the ship ; the screw itself 
being also below the sairface of the water, is less likely to receive 
injury than is the case with paddle wheels, one of which is sometimes 
buried in the water, and the other ineffectually revolving in the air. 
Steam vessels now accomplish a speed of sixteen miles an hour, 
and some are constructed of several thousands of tons burthen. 

From the capacious portfolio were produced further sketches of 
favourite ships and barques in which the officer had sailed, and 
choice drawings of little gems of schooner yachts and noble fri- 
gates, picturesque boys and Dutch luggers, such as artists love, 
and no end of Chinese junks, catamarans, gondolas, caciques, 
boats, and canoes, with most unpronounceable names used by 
all the queerest people imaginable in all parts of the world, to 
describe and depict which would occupy too much space in this 
little book. 

It must suffice to say that we spent a very long pleasant even- 
ing in the discussion of these water vehicles, and that at last when 
the officer gathered up his sketches and closed his note book he 
retired amidst the acclamations of the company. 

Had the voyage referred to in this small volume been per- 
formed in the present year, the officer's portfolio would un- 
doubtedly have contained a sketch of the " Great Eastern," a few 
particulars of which leviathan of the deep are appended. 

It is proposed to propel this modern ark by paddle engines of 
1500 horse power and screw engines of 1800 horse power, giving 
a total of 3300, though capable of being worked to a force of 
upwards of 5000 horses. 

The hull is constructed double, on the principle adopted in the 
top and bottom of the Britannia bridge, the inner skin or hull 
being 2 ft. 10 in. apart from the outer; she will have six masts, 



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" I am out of humani^'s reach, 
1 most finish my joainej alooe; 
Nerer hear the sweet music of speech, 
I start at the sonad of mj own. — Cowfbb. 

SouE of the ancients believed the world to be a huge animal, 
an opinion induced by the convulsions of nature; its heavinga 
iind throbbinga appearing to them as the violent stru^lings of a 
livii^ being, in the intensity of its agony vomiting masses of 
£ame, and causing the elements to melt and run through its veins 
at metallic blood. 

Modem minds regard these phenomena as the handiwork of 
the One Creator to whom great and small are ahke; whether 
with noise and terrible grandeur, from the tumultuous monntoins 


iisue forth tbeirfieiy coatenta, canTuig nrift detraction widi dMm, 
until lost in the billom of the agitated aea; or mjiiada of miniite 
■ocial coral iiuects ilowlj rear island* and ocmtmenlB by tlieii 
tilent labours. 

la one of thoae grand emptiona of nature, » rolcano emerged 
from the deptha of the ocean and reared ita head above the cdt- 
taining waters, and being rent aninder in its asocaU, the roUing 
seas rushed into the seelMng, scorching crater, which eren now 
has so little cooled, that the peroolatiag water maj be discorered 
Bleaming oud boiling a few inches below the stir&ce. Thus seenu 
to have originated the curious island of St. Paul's, not more than 
three or four miles long, and two miles in breadtii; standing in 
the SouUiem Indian Ocean &r awaj (2000 miles) &om anj 
inhabited continent; not accessible, with aa&ly, at anj time, nor 
on any side except by one small opening on the eastern shore, 

where a portion of the crater has been torn away, partly, probably, 
by disruption when the island was thrown up, and parUy worn 
down by the action of the waves. This crater, exceeding Etna 
or Vesuvius in size, is entered from the sea between two barriere 
or breakwaters of slonas, jutting out from each side of the high 
clifia which form the eastern boundary of the basin, leaving a 


narrow channel of forty yards in width. At the entrance of the 
bay, about 200 yards from the shore, stands, as a sentinel, an 
insulated conical rock, built up in horizontal layers, bearing the 
marks of intense igneous action. Rowing slowly through the 
dense fringe of seaweed which girts the island, and with difficulty 
avoiding striking with the oars the sea-birds which, bold and free 
from alarm, hover around in such vast multitudes that the 
visitor is suddenly struck with a painful feeling of isolation ; — 

*' They are so unaccastomed to man. 
Their tameness is shocking to see." 

the basin of the crater is at last entered, and from the edge of 
this lake of water, nearly two miles in circumference, the land 
rises suddenly in the shape of a funnel or inverted cone, to the 
height of 700 feet, and at the steep elevation of 65°. Springs of 
hot water are found on the slopes of the crater, the temperature 
of some being as high as the boiling point, of others rather 
lower ; while aroimd grow mosses in abundance, and the lycopo- 
dium cemuum in its loved warmth and moisture. The bubbling 
springs are nearly all brackish ; but the small running streams, which 
have their source in the high groimd, are still drinkable although 
tinged with a mineral taste. Tench, bream, perch, and other fish 
aboimd in the basin and on the coast, and from the place where 
caught may be boiled in one of the many neighbouring springs 
without removal from the line. Occasionally vessels are lost on 
this little island, and very severe are the sufferings of the wrecked, 
so fearfully few are the resources of the place; except just at the 
eastern basin referred to, and to reach which is difficult, although 
absolutely necessary for relief ; the precipitous character of the 
clifTs and the great height of the tall grass rendering progress 
slow and painful. It would be well if every person landing from 
curiosity would plant in sheltered spots a few potatoes, or a small 
quantity of seeds of cruciferous plants or pumpkins. 

Ascending the steep slopes we come to an imdulating plateau, 
terminating in a range of perpendicular cli£&, from which the 


weBtorn sbore is reached by a small pathway, frequented by the 
sealers when the wind driTee their prey to this side of the 

Suilding rude stone hnts on the edge of the crater lake, and 
spreading a carpet of long grass on the floor, the sealers, depend- 
ing principally upon fish and birds for their subsistence, pursue 
their monotonous life for months, killing thousands of seals for 
the oil and the skins they yield. So nunierous were these 
animals that the droves frequently numbered eight hundred or 
more; but of late years they have diminiahed. 

Seals resemble quadrupeds in some respects and fish in others ; 
breathing by internal lungs as the former, and not by the appa- 
ratus of ^lls like fish. The head is round, the nose broad, 
resembling a dog, and they have a peculiar bark; the lower 
extremity tapers off hke the body of a fish. 

The eye and ear of the seal are so constructed that he must 
have very moderate powers of sight and hearing, and still less 
sense of touch, except through the medium of whiskers. Of all 
four-footed mammalia, seals display the most adaptation for Jiving 
in the water; though the feet are furnished with the same number 
of bones as land quadrupeds, they are united to the body in a 
very curious manner, and so covered that they might be con- 
sidered fins were it not for the sharp claws with which they are 
pointed. The limbs, in fact, are converted into oars and paddles ; 
the front pair having the arms so short, that little more than the 


paws advanoe from the body ; the hind limbs are so far back as to 
occupy the usual position of a tail, the toes being in contact, and 
the web folded except when swimming. Seals are awkward on 
land, and seldom venture on shore, and when disturbed imme- 
diately plunge into the water. Their food is principally fish, 
crabs, and birds. 

Seals are found in all parts of the world, and seal-hunting, in 
the colder regions, is not unattended with danger; the ice being 
full of chasms or pools made by the seals. As they breathe 
with lungs, seals cannot remain under water beyond a limited 
time, and as they cannot turn down their heads to gnaw a hole 
from above, and the ice sometimes forms and joins so fast as to 
close the hole through which they had risen, the seals are fre- 
quently cut off from their retreat, and their capture thus made 
easy. As many as 600,000 skins have been brought to England 
in one year. When first obtained, they are salted and packed in 
casks, in which state they are sent home, being sorted on arrival 
according to their suitability for various purposes. The greater 
portion is tanned and enamelled with black, for ladies' shoes,' and 
the leather is much used for shoe-binding, where great strength 
is required ; other descriptions are well adapted for fur, especially 
the seals of the South Seas and the north-west coast of America. 
Before used for the latter purpose it is necessary that the very 
coarse hairs which cover the fine silky fur should be removed, 
and as the roots of this description of hair are deeply seated in 
the substance of the skin, while the fur is attached to the upper 
surface, by shaving the inside of the skin the roots of the coarse 
hairs are cut through and they easily fall out. This soft curly 
fur, having the appearance of the richest velvet, is most frequently 
dyed a deep Vandyke brown, and then manufactured into every 
variety of dress. When carefully manufactured, seal-skin is very 
strong, and the skins of the large elephant seals are, for this 
reason, used in harness-making. 

St. Paul's also abounds with those grotesque birds, penguins, 


wboee feet are placed ao far back that the solema gravity of their 
appearance when thej stand upright in a line upon the ground 
is extremely amitsiog. The wings are small, and cannot raise the 
&t heavy bird, frequently weighing from twenty to forty pounds j 

they peck boldly, and defend themselves rigorously, until reaching 
the water, to which they immediately hasten when assailed, they 
dive and disappear. 

The &ir breeze blew, and ae the Petrel skimmed the seas we 
looked backwards with afiection towards that little land floating 
there in a sea of fire, until it diminished into a tiny speck on the 
glomus sun as he sank beneath the western wave. 



AT SEA — THE artist's ocean THOUGHTS. 

" A thing of beauty is a joy for ever; 
Its loveliness increases; it will never 
Pom into nothingness," Kb*ts. 

■ who, though shunning rather 
3 most remarked and mdividual- 

Amongst the voyagers was o 
than courting observation, was 1 
ized person in the ship. 

Of medium height, his alight make conveyed the impression of 
a taller man than his real stature justified; the aymmetry of his 
delicate frame suggested physical refinement; while through his 
dreamy, dark, luxurious eyes, the passionate genius enshrined 


within that noble forehead beamed forth with mild radiance, 
lighting up a countenance on which ''the pale cast of thought" 
had thrown a pensive sadness, as the shadow of the angel of 

Courteous to all, it was a peculiar sympathy that caused the 
little children to flock around him and listen with intense earnest- 
ness to his quaint fairy tales and legends; and when frequent 
illness prevented his visiting the deck, groups of their inquiring 
faces might be seen hovering near his cabin-door, from which no 
coaxing could entice them ; and if invited to enter the coveted 
object of their sly peeps through the Venetian blinds, they would 
quietly sit and play with his thin hands, kiss his pallid cheeks, or 
inquisitively peer into his cabinet, examining with wondering 
curiosity its varied contents. 

A stranger to all on board, rumour said that Ducal Coronets 
embellished the carriages of the fair ladies whose arrangement 
of his small cabin disclosed that an intelligent foresight had 
endeavoured to relieve, as far as possible, the discomfort of a sea- 

He was accompanied by a youthful sister, a ministering angel, 
to whom he was all the world, and who was all the world to him. 
Graceful in form, and of a gentle spirit, her loving anxious eyes 
instinctively followed as an echo or a shadow her other dearer 
self; and this devotion to one whom disease had marked for early 
death, surrounded as with a halo of celestial radiance a head and 
figure of enchanting loveliness. Every feature was exquisitely 
chiselled; and firm, well defined lips added the perfection of 
decision to the rich warmth and tenderness of the upper face ; the 
whole reposing with quiet harmony in a choice setting of dark 
chesnut tresses. 

When prostrate by his fitful malady, the voice of this guardian 
angel, in sweetest strains, sought to soothe his pain by the plaintive 
accents of melodious Dante, or cheer his languor by the full 
flowing joyousness of Chaucer, or the Fairie Queene. 


From the fragmentaiy threads of desultory conTersatione slight 
clues to the artist's history were gathered up. 

Descended from a ittniily of small foTtime, in the county of 
Westmoreland, Art had early laid upon him her fascinating hand ; 

and reading, meditation, and the ardent practice of his all- 
absorbing, chosen occupation, only inflamed the intense desire of 
his soul to visit the sunny land of Italy, and contemplate under 
their own glorious skies the worts of ancient genius ; — arrived 
there, his devotion, power, and application as a student, acquired 
for him the high respect and cordial warm admiration of his 
brother artists. 

Stored with grateful recollections of the dead, and the won- 
drous achievements of past ^es, the inspiration within stirred 
him to do mantiJ battle for the present. 

May-day approached, bright, fair, and green, and full of glad' 
some hope; his first picture was received, scrutinized, and the 
new artist's work admitted by the committee, without dissentient 
voice, and hung — upon the line: the newspaper critics con- 
descended to notice it as the performance of one possessing 


dements of promise ; and ignorant conceit pointed out for amend- 
ment assumed errors in this foreshortening and that shadow ; this 
faulty grouping, and that defective colouring. 

Always present in that group of eminent men who have won 
for themselves renown in science, literature, and art, mingled 
with fair and noble ladies, periodically thronging the private 
view of the Academy exhibition, was a city merchant, who in 
early life had adored the muses, and still cherishing within him 
a soul tender towards art, amidst a constrained attention to bills 
of lading, rates of exchange, price of money, quotations of indigo, 
sugar, rice, and cotton, religiously visited the Academy yearly 
with the thrilling ardour of a first love. 

Sauntering from room to room, with apparent listlessness, he 
carefully noted the works which arrested his footsteps; on a 
second visit none escaped investigation ; a third inspection (this 
time his catalogue became richly marked and scored with notes) 
resulted in the purchase of one or two gems worthy of admission 
into his already numerous collection. 

More than once the young artist's pictures had been elected to 
the post of honour by this fair, open competition of merit ; the 
only judgment the merchant consulted being that of an old friend, 
an eminent engraver, who, with a true feeling for the poetry of 
art, would dwell with delight upon the simplicity and power of 
the treatment, the strength and harmony of the colouring, the 
careful correct drawing, and the perfect oneness of the com- 

Year after year critics asserted and counter-asserted — ^yearly 
belying their previous statements ; but the artist, unheeding, kept 
his own high course ; no great sums were paid or demanded for 
his works ; no rich or noble personage invited the painter to grace 
with genius the bounteous board; — at length one of royal lineage 
appreciated the mind and hand of a master, and prevailed upon 
the citizen to resign a choice production of our artist's brush. 

THE artist's OGBAN THOUGHTS. 133 

Fame, flattering attentions, commissions, henceforward pressed 
upon the suddenly valued artist; whose mind, ever powerful to 
conceive, remained perfect, yea, by its contrast with the sinking 
body, seemed to grow richer, and soar higher; but the executing 
hand faltered and forgot its cunning ; the stream of life's warm 
blood flowed stealthily and heavily, as a dull brook oozes with 
difficulty through the sand into the eternal ocean; and overworked 
humanity threatened to become a wreck, shattering and breaking 
up into its pristine elements the delicate framework of his being ; 
releasing the undying spirit from its prison-house. 

Able physicians advised a total change of scene as the most 
likely means of restoring tone to the overstrained nerves ; and 
the ruling passion dictated a voyage in the Petrel, for the artist 
had a hidden desire, suppressed even to himself, and totally con- 
cealed from all others, to find fresh subjects for his pencil in that 
newest world, so grand in its vegetable life, so unique in its 
animal creation. 

The noble, loving-souled artist who had thus become a passenger 
on board our good ship, was invited to repeat at one of our weekly 
assemblies, for the benefit of all, some of those suggestive ocean 
thoughts which had been uttered by him to individuals with 
unobtrusive grace in his ordinary conversation. 

The elder men hoped that this gentle excitement might arouse 
and divert his attention from the foe within; matrons loved to 
listen to his words as to the last broken eloquence of a cherished 
only son ; while his voice fell upon maiden's ear as the sweet 
music hush of the streams of Paradise ; and his little friends, the 
children, expected tales of meadow fairies and their wondrous 
tricks ; of King Arthur, and adventurous armed knights in search 
of imprisoned ladies; of the lands of golden orange groves and 
purple grapes ; of the dread mountain whose fiery breath foamed 
out destruction upon whole cities, burying them beneath the 
molten tide ; of the early Christians who in fear worshipped the 


true God in the catacombs; of Romulus and the Tolf, and the 
stem old Romans; of Greek beroes — wise, just, and brave; of the 


vast pyramids and the mystenous Sphynx, and the marvellous 
temple ruins in the dense shadow hind of Egypt. 

" Our good chief officer," began the artist, " having allotted to 
me the pleasurable duty of explaining to you the heraldic devices 
employed in the royal standard, I will first of all, with your per- 
mission, dispose of that subject. I fear, however, that to render 
the matter clear, I may have to refer at some length to a few 
preliminary questions with which all may not be conversant. 

Emblems very similar to armorial bearings have been in use 
from time immemorial, both in war and in peace; and we find 
many illustrations of this fact in the shields of ancient warriors, 
and the devices on those coins, rings, and seals which have escaped 
the destructive agency of time. The ancients made use of lions, 
tigers, dragons, foxes, and owls, as representatives of strength, 
cunning, wisdom, &c.; such assumptions or picture lessons, if I 
may so speak, being intended to indicate the possession of similar 

THE artist's ocean THOUGHTS. 135 

qualities by the bearers : — thus the ihilitary standards of the 
Romans were carvings in wood or metal, principally representing 
an eagle, which were elevated at the end of a lance or staff. 

Standards, generally made of silk or other woven textile fabric^ 
have been in use among modem nations from a very early period ; 
and St. Augustin and his followers are related by Bede to have 
approached Ethelbert, King of Kent, bearing flags or banners, on 
which were displayed silver crosses and the picture of Jesus 

The word flag, I may mention, is derived from an Anglo-Saxon 
word, — fleogan, to fly or float in the wind. 

The greatest development of emblems took place at the period 
of history so well known as " the middle ages," when warlike 
sports were the amusement of the times of peace, the most impor- 
tant of these being the tournament, from the French word tourner, 
to run round ; because in those military games, skill, and agility, 
both of rider and horse, in rapidly turning, were requisite for 

On a tournament being announced, the competitors attended 
with flowing banners, on horses gaily caparisoned, their fantastic 
devices gorgeously displayed on shield and surcoat. Arriving at 
the barriers of the tilting-ground, each competitor blew a trumpet 
or horn ; whereupon his name, armorial bearings and rank were 
recorded by the herald ; and hence arose heraldry, or the art of 
blazon, which signifies a description of arms in their proper 
terms : the word blazon coming from the German, " blatzen," to 
blow a horn. 

These tournaments greatly extended the use of heraldic dis- 
tinctions, from the numerous fanciful devices by which the 
champions in such feats were distinguished. 

According to the established articles, all princes, lords, barons, 
and gentlemen of noble extraction were entitled and invited to 
become combatants, provided they came well and properly armed. 
Those who were received and admitted to tourney were required 


to appear dressed in complete armour, with their arms em- 
broidered or depicted on their surcoats ; and mounted on horses 
fully caparisoned. Each combatant was preceded by his esquire, 
also upon horseback, and bearing in his right-hand his master's 
tilting spear, from which floated a pennon of his arms, and in his 
left the helmet which was to be worn in the exercise, ornamented 
with lambrequins or flowing pieces of silk, mistresses favours or 
wreaths, being of the tinctures or colours of his arms and proper 
liveries, and surmounted by the crest and device. 

When the combatants approached the spot whereon the tour- 
naments were appointed to be solemnized, they, on notice given 
by sounding a horn or trumpet, were met at the barrier by the 
judges of the tilt and others appointed for that purpose, to whom 
they presented their arms, armorial bearings, and requisite proofs 
of descent and qualiflcation. 

These being duly examined by the judges, were registered in 
their books, together with the names of their several lordships ; 
which done, the shields and arms of the competitors were hung 
upon tents, trees, barriers, and fit places near to the lists, some 
days before the sports were to begin; not only as signals of chal- 
lenge to all such as were willing to contend, but in order that 
every combatant might be known to the actors, judges, and 
spectators. Each of the shields thus exposed to public view was 
attended by the pages of the respective challengers, to whom the 
shields belonged, dressed in such fashion as their masters fancied, 
some appearing like savages, Saracens, Moors, sirens ; others like 
lions, bears, tigers, bulls, and other animals ; and it was the 
business of these pages, in conjunction with the heralds, to take 
an account of the names and arms of all those who accepted the 
challenge. This fantastic dressing of the attendants appears to 
have given rise to the introduction of the grotesque supporters 
added to some coats of arms. 

The second great occasion for the advancement of heraldry 

THE artist's ocean THOUGHTS. 187 

was the crusades, or croisades, from the Latin crux, or French 
croix, a cross, because it was in defence and for the propagation 
of Christianity that they were undertaken. 

Hundreds of thousands, millions I may say, of persons of all 
ranks embarked in this cause, firm in the belief that those who 
might be slain while pursuing this object would immediately 
receive the reward of martyrdom. Most of the adventurers as- 
sumed additional heraldic devices, previously unknown in armo- 
rial ensigns ; more especially of crosses of infinite variety of colour 
and shape. 

The miseries the crusaders suffered and caused are lost in the 
abyss of time; only dreamy impressions remain of the over- 
whelming display of physical strength, the prowess of heroic in- 
dividuals and the power of principle, however blind or fanatic 
we may now consider it to have been, which could so move na- 
tions ; and " distance lends enchantment to the scene " which has 
captivated the painters and poets of all succeeding times. 

These crusades gave an importance to the art of heraldry 
which it had not previously obtained, and which it has since to a 
great extent lost by modern changes in the mode of warfare. 

When the person was cased in armour and the face covered, it 
was scarcely possible to distinguish one knight from another, 
except by the insignia painted on their shields, embroidered on 
their surcoats, or displayed upon their banners. 

Hence also it arose that besides the national fiags, the king's 
banner, and any religious banners carried with the army in the 
days of chivalry, many less important banners distinguishing par- 
ticular portions of the army were introduced, on which the leaders 
depicted the heraldic devices of their houses, and these flags 
served as rallying points to their retainers ; for it should be re- 
membered, that at the period referred to, standing armies were 
unknown, but each chief was followed by his tenantry and serfs, 
and that a battle then partook more of the nature of a m^ee, or 
numerous small fights, carried on independently, and the loss of 




some of these ralljring points must have, on many occasions, 
seriously afTected the result of the whole. 

In heraldry various rules as to the depicting of the devices 
were established, which I may here name. 




Gnles . . . 

Bine . 




Azure . 



Horizontal lines 

Sable . 


Vert .... 

and horizontal 
lines crossing 

Diagonal lines 
from left to 

Diagonal lines 
from right to 



White. . . . 

Or . . . 

Argent . . . 


Plain blank space 

* The riqht side of the shield faces the left hand of the spectator. 

THE artist's ocean THOUGHTS. 139 

It is contrary to heraldic usage to place a colour upon a colour, 
or a metal upon a metal ; they must interchange. The quarter 
is formed by two lines, one perpendicular the other horizontal; 
taking up a fourth part of the shield. The canton is a square 
figure like the quarter, but smaller, beitig formed by the inter- 
section of two lines distant from the right or left upper comer, 
one-third of the breadth of the shield. The orle is an inner 
border of the same shape as the shield, but does not touch its 
extremities ; and the tressure is a diminutive of the orle, half its 
breadth, and is frequently borne fleuri, coimter-fleuri, the fleurs- 
de-lis being alternately turned outwards and inwards. 

Having made these general remarks on the subject of heraldry, 
I will now, continued the artist, show their application to the 
royal standard; by which is understood the most considerable 
banner of an army, or the national banner, the supreme mark of 
the state ; it is hoisted only by the vessel on which the sovereign or 
one of the royal family may be voyaging at the time. On shore 
it is exhibited on festival occasions at public buildings of the state. 

The present royal standard is divided into four portions ; the 
arrangement being in accordance with a proclamation of George 
the Third, when the Union of Great Britain with Ireland took 
place ; by this proclamation it was ordered that " the arms or 
ensigns armorial of the United Kingdom, shall be quarterly, the 
first and fourth for England, the second Scotland, the third Ireland." 

The first and fourth quarters are occupied by the English arms 
of the Sovereign, and each quarter is composed of three lions, 
represented in the act of walking, their faces turned towards the 
spectator ; the lions are depicted of yellow colour, and the ground 
or field, red. This portion of the arms originated with Richard 1st, 
Coeur de-Lion, who, after his return from captivity, adopted three 
lions as his device, and they have continued in use ever since. 

The second compartment or quarter is occupied by the Scotch 
arms of the Sovereign, being one rampant lion within a double 
border, in heraldry termed a tressure, the ground being yellow, 
the lion and surrounding borders, red. The lion appears to have 



been derived from the Northumberland family, from whom the 
Scottish kings were descended; the origin of the tressure is lost. 

The third quarter, the lower, nearest the flagstaff, has a blue 
ground, bearing upon it a golden harp, with white or silver strings, 
this being the device for Ireland; the harp was sacred to Apollo 
Grian, or Beal, the principal deity of the ancient Irish. 

On the principles I have stated the British Royal Standard 
would be thus represented : — 

Ist & 4th Quarters 


In colours. 


In ngraving. 

Ground or field, 



Lions, yellow 



2nd Quarter . . 


Ground or field, 

Lion & tressure, 





3rd Quarter . . 


Ground or field, 



Harp, yellow 
Strings, silver 




Plain white 

Having finished this portion of my task, I gladly draw your 
attention away from the whims and eccentric institutions of man, 
to the more pleasing and satisfying operations of nature. 

With the noral adornments of the earth you are all more or 
less acquainted, and how exquisitely beautiful the choice arrange- 
ment and play of colors in the delicate pencillings of the petals of 
the most simple flower ; how etherial the bloom and aroma of 
those rich fruits, whose luxurious juices refresh all living crea- 
tures ; how interesting to trace, study, and master the ramifica- 
tions of the veins of leaves carrying the vegetable blood to and 
from all parts of the plant, the sjonmetrical position of its leaves 
on a tree, each having its own peculiar law, the order yet happy 
fi-eedom of growth of the branches, conferring a charming, indi- 


IfflfSl'IdDM JACM. 


THE artist's ocean THOUGHTS. 141 

vidnality on every species, and giving a marked character to 
every landscape. 

Scarcely less enticingly attractive are those forms of vegetable 
life which flourish totally submerged in the moderate depths of 
the sea, where, anchored to the firm rock, their nodding plumes, 
in colors of every shade, from sombre deepest olive and russet to 
brightest green and yellow and red, undulate to the swell of 
ocean; infinite are their forms, some of tiniest fairy threads, 
others of broad massive bands extending hundreds of feet in 
length, at intervals spreading out into large discs or plates. 

These silent submarine groves are inhabited by tribes of 
molluscs, star fishes, and thousands of animals whose structure 
and habits adapt them for these regions, all enjoying their 
allotted happiness and fulfilling the object of their creation. 

From one large field of seaweed the uprooted plants are 
yielded in such quantity, that off one part of the coast of North 
America vessels sail for days through long swathes of floating 
masses of vegetable, termed Gulf- weed, spreading over an extent 
several hundreds of miles in length and breadth. 

In this brief allusion to marine vegetation, I should not omit 
to notice that those peculiar substances, Bromine and Iodine, are 
derived from seaweeds, the latter so valuable as a medicine in 
cases of goitre and other diseases; and when heated, subliming 
from its previous dull metallic condition into a glorious violet 
vapor, rising as a released spirit to its happier state. 

Nor is the ocean tenanted only with vegetable life in the manner 
we have intimated ; but movable creatures, in many cases far sur- 
passing land animals in size, number, and swiftness, abound ; of 
some of the most interesting and important our commander has 
discoursed to us; briefly on this evening would I refer to those 
water-beauties, true sea nymphs, to which the poetic Greeks gave 
the name of virgins of the sea (kure halos, whence the Roman 
curalium, corallium, corals), who all dwell in warm regions, and 
whose delicate constitutions and fragile forms seem unable to 
endure the rigour of cold latitudes. 


Some of these busy little tribes, groups of sea colonies, secrete 
in their interior a stony core or nucleus composed of carbonate 
of lime, constituting the variously shaped, flat, or branching tree- 
like corals; this centre is invested with a skin, covering it as a 
bark, and maintaioing the organic connection between the numer- 
ous separate polyps which thus constitute an entire and vitally 
connected family. 

Of oa infinite variety of forms and colours, residents of that 
twihght region, midway between iullest sunshine and utter dark- 
ness, in a genial climate, and ever laved with clearest moving 
waters, they live and flourish, thickly covering the floor of ocean 
as with an enamelled living carpet of matchless splendour. 
"And here were coral bowers, 
And grots of madrepores, 
And banks of sponge, as soft and fair 1« cje 
As e'er was mosaj' bed 
Whereon the wood-nymph lie, 
With langQtd limbs in summer's snttrj honrE." 

Hosts of these tiny, social, family labourers build up in the 
mild zones of that hemisphere to which we are sailing, islands of 
large extent, and reefs hundreds of miles in length ; the limi- 
tations of their energetic life being such, however, that they 
cease to increase where the reef is dry at low water, the coral 
animals requiring the constant presence of the fluid 

THE artist's ocean THOUGHTS. 143 

The red coral obtained from the Mediterranean and Eastern seas 
varies much in hue, that growing in shaUow water being of the 
most beautiful colour ; the light of the sun, as in the case of 
plants, seeming to be essential for the development of colour. 

The Madrepore differs from the red coral in this respect, that 
the Madrepore corals possess cells composed of the substance of 
the skeleton, which serve to protect the polypi, whereas the polypi 
of the red coral are destitute of these little homes. In the living 
Madrepore, the branches are covered with the polypi projecting 
from these cells, and when they die, and the flesh decays, this 
internal skeleton is studded over with these elegant cell dwellings. 

Nor alone do these anchored colonies people the margin and 
floor of the seas; millions of other animated beings, not develop- 
ing into vegetable forms and secreting internal skeletons, but 
gifted with the power of depositing an external covering of 
strong calcareous lamineB, live a happy existence in their watery 
abodes. For illustration I need but remind you of the infinity of 
beautifully variegated shells found in all our Museums. 

Of these brilliant specimens of the Divine Workman*? gems of 
ocean, man has made but slender use ; art has, however, availed 
itself to a slight extent, and by skilfully removing portions of 
these various lamineB, has produced works in shell (cameos) of 
extreme delicacy and beauty. 

Other inhabitants of the ocean yield further adornments to 
female beauty in the shape of pearls, found, strange to say, in the 
inelegant and unpromising shell of a species of oyster ; and the 
covering, carapace, of the chelonia turtle, supplies those various 
articles of dress and ornament so well known as tortoise-shell. 

Among the ever-varying forms of beauty which people the 
deep sea the nautili hold a royal place. 

Both of the modem species of these animals dwell in shells, at 
the outer extremity of which they reside, but the distinguishing 
peculiarity of one, the argonauta argo, is, that the shell is not 
divided into partitions, as in the case of the true nautilus, the 
nautilus pompilius. 


Addisoii) in his " Vision of Mirza," places the sleeper on a rock, 
and being directed to look eastward, " I see," said he, " ja. huge 
valley, and a prodigious tide of water rolling through it." " That 
valley," said the genius, " is the vale of misery, and the tide of 
water is part of the great tide of eternity. The tide rises out of 
a thick mist at one end, and again loses itself in a thick mist at 
the other, and is that portion of eternity which is called time. 
Now -east thine eye," said the genius, " on that thick mist into 
which the tide bears the several generations of mortals that fall 
into it." I did so, and saw the valley opening at the further end, 
and spreading forth into an immense ocean, that had a huge rock 
of adamant running through the midst of it, and dividing it into two 
^ual parts. The clouds still rested on one-half of it, insomuch that 
I could discover nothing in it, but the other appeared to me a vast 
ocean planted with innumerable islands that were covered with fruits 
and flowers, and interwoven with a thousand little shining seas 
that ran among them. Gladness grew in me upon the discovery 
-of so delightful a scene. I wished for the wings of an eagle that 
I might fly away to those happy seats, but the genius told me there 
was no passage to them except through the gates of death. " The 
islands," said he, " that He so fresh and green before thee, and with 
which the whole face of the ocean appears spotted as far as thou 
canst see are the mansions of good men after death." 

And Bunyan, in his delightful allegory, represents his Christian 
hero, at the end of his eventful life, as passing through a turbulent 
river, typical of death; and after watching his progress through 
the stream, and shadowing forth his entrance among the blest, the 
dreamer adds with loving aspiration, " Which, when I had seen, 
I wished myself among them I" 

He ceased, and a profound silence prevailed ; for although each 
was desirous of testifying his respect and aflfection, all were spell- 
bound; continuous speaking having evidently been too much 
exertion for the exhausted frame of the artist. 

THE artist's iicean thoughts. 147 

The black steward, without directions or request, placed a tra^ 
with refreshments on the table before the speaker, then quickly 
and quietly retired; no word waa spoken, but the simple act 
showed that beneath his tawny skic, a human, brother's heart was 

" One (ODch of nature mokes tbe whole world kin." 

At length a sturdy Scot stretched forth bis braway ami, and 
grasping the hand of the artist, was about to thank him on behalf 
of the company, but his manly souLgaveway, and with jumbliDg 
confusion as of a maiden speech, he could only stammer out, 
"Courage, my lad;" and turning away his head to conceal his 
emotion, retreated to his cabin. 

Later Id the evening a violent cough and sickness told too plainly 
of the firmer grasp with which disease had laid hold of its victim ; 
and many that night had troublous, half-sleeping, half-waking 
dreams of him who had so touchingiy uttered the words, " I 
wished myself among them!" 




" But upon the &irest bonglu 
Or at everj sentence' end 
Will I Boaalinda write." Shakbfbabi^. 

Foremost amongst the nations which profited by the passage 
of Vasco de Gama roiuid. the Cape of Good Hope to India were 
the Dutch; who. settling on Beveral of the inter-tropical islands, 
early seciired the valuable trade in spices, a large portion of which 
they have retained to the present time. 


In Java, they cheered one another bj reminiscences of their 
fatherland in the icy north, and returning to their native low- 
land homes in Holland, the fortunate adventurers incited others to 
follow in their steps bj their glowing narratives of the rich, 
warm, luxurious east, and the exhibition of the solid practical 
results of their temporary exile. 

From their principal settlement in Java, these enterprising 
Dutchmen started afresh on various voyages, with a view to still 
further extend that profitable commerce which had rendered 
Holland so rich, powerful, and famous. 

One of the most active in prosecuting these researches was 
Abel Janz Tasman, who, in 1644, sailed £rom Batavia on an 
expedition of exploration and discovery. A lover's heart beat 
within the breast of the gallant Dutchman; and while preparing 
his little ship for the mysterious voyage into unknown seas upon 
which he was intent, his visits to the governor's house, in order to 
frilly understand the instructions of that official, Antonio Van 
Dieman, were necessarily frequent ; the more so, perchance, because 
on those pleasant occasions, listening to the interesting tales of 
past hair-breadth escapes and projected adventures, by the side of 
the wise governor stood his loving daughter, Maria. 

The flag which blew out from the peak of the little bark had 
been worked by her delicate fingers, and the brave sailor had 
vowed that, af)«r leaving Batavia, it should not be displayed until 
he could unfurl it on land as then unknown ; and when the time 
for the departure of the expedition had arrived, and Tasman's 
ship sto<xi out to sea under a salute from the battery and amidst 
waving of hats and kerchiefs, and.fiying of flags, the last to leave 
the post of observation was Maria Van Dieman. 

Full well did Tasman keep his vow; for, with true sense of 
love and duty, he named his first discovery after the governor 
and his lady-love ^* Van Dieman's Land ;'' anon he observed a 
small islet reposing as a gem on the fair bosom of the larger land, 
this he christened *' Maria;" and thence saiUng away before the 


Strong westerly breezes, the intrepid seaman steered towards the 
unknown east; and having given the surname of his beloved to 
his first discovery, and her Christian name to the second, but one 
more combination remained possible, the union of her Christian 
and surname; and thus his third discovery, the first portion of 
New Zealand ever seen by Europeans, still rings of true love in 
the name of its northernmost point, " Cape Maria Van Dieman." 

Joyously the brave bold sailor returned with wondrous tales of 
new-found land ; and as gun after gun rumbling over the deep 
silent sea aroused the attention of the Batavians, one gentle dis- 
cerning ear caught up the dying echoes, and with throbbing heart 
the governor's daughter wended her way to the port's extremest 
point, and as the vessel rounded to and dropped anchor, the cannon 
of the castle boomed out a noisy welcome, and the ships in port 
manned yards, and greeted with lusty cheers the returning suc- 
cessful navigator. 

Doubtless as a happy spouse, Maria Van Dieman, merging her 
name in that of Tasman, just as the appellation of the island has 
been changed from Van Dieman*s Land to Tasmania, long loved 
her husband for his noble virtues as for the dangers he had 

From the period of Tasman's visit until 1798, Van Dieman's 
Land was supposed to form a peninsula of the Australian con- 
tinent, and received but few visits from European navigators. In 
the latter end of that year Captain Flinders and Mr. Bass, surgeon, 
coasted the southern shore of New Holland, and sailed round Van 
Dieman's Land, arriving back at Sydney in January, 1799; 
having ascertained that a large strait, sprinkled with clusters of 
small islands, many of granite formation, and abounding in seals 
and aquatic birds, divided the Australian main from Van Dieman^s 
Land; to this strait Captain Flinders gave the name of Bass, in 
honour of his companion, who had been so enthusiastic in explor- 
ing the new continent. 

In a small boat, which they designated " Tom Thumb," with 


only one boy assistant, Lieutenant Flinders and Mr. Bass had in 
1795^ explored 300 miles of the coast south of Port Jackson, and 
Mr. Bass had subsequently in an open boat extended his surveys 
to the distance of 600 miles from Sydney. 

The South-West and South Capes are the portions of land first 
seen on approaching Van Dieman's Land from the westward ; close 
in shore the group of Maatsuyker islets lie as guardian dogs, exposed 
to the rough waves and cold blasts from the icy south pole, 
watching with silent gaze the Southern Cross rise upon heaven's 
field of the cloth of gold. Passing to the southward, or between 
the Mewstone and the Eddystone rocks, we near Brun^ Island, 
the wild bold coast becoming more subdued in character, the 
high peaks, elevated flats, or table lands, sweeping valleys, and 
dense forests, being succeeded by the pleasant view of farm clear- 
ings ; w^hile curling pale blue smoke rising from house and cot, 
suggests thoughts of happy human homes, as we sail round the 
dark Friars' Rocks and up Storm Bay, or the more sheltered 
D'Entrecasteaux's Channel. 

Promontories of greenstone in various parts of the island, as 
Fluted Cape, Cape Pillar, Cape Kaoul, Circular Head, testify of 
the intense igneous action to which primeval Tasmania must have 
been exposed ; the bold gothic columns of ihese heights, around 
whose base the huge waves play their solemn eternal music, are 
so symmetrically grouped together as to suggest the idea of 
their having once formed colossal pillars of disrupted giant 

For a little Goshen commend us to a cozy farm on. the banks 
of the spreading Derwent; there, reclining in a rose and ^chia 
bower on a grassy slope shelving down to a pebbly beach, off 
which our anchored pleasure fishing boat sways in harmony with 
the hushing song of the bright rippling stream, we may watch 
the passing ships ; and while we gaze, one and another tall vessel 
drifts round yonder point, borne onward by the flowing tide, their 
silver sails scarce bellying to the soft slumbering wind ; bedecked 



with vari^^ted streamers, one passes now, and as she glides along 
with slow, stealthy, measured pace, her signals repeated from the 
flagstaff on Mount Nelson, annoimce to the embayed town beyond 
that a ship from home is at hand. 

Suddenly a dull gloom passes over the water; it is a squall 
coursing along the surface, for the moment beating the calm lake 
into small shadowy billows. " Luff 1" cries the pilot to the helms- 
man. '* Keep all you can,'' and " luff again,'* continues he, as 
the vessel careers through the parting stream towards her 

We hear the shrill whistle of the boatswain, and a movement 
on board tells of the crew hastening to quarters ; one minute more 
and the sharp sound is heard again, and mainsail and foresail are 
clewed up; halyards of topsails and topgallantsails let go; the 
mizen is brailed up, and the jib flies loose in the strong breeze, 
and notwithstanding these precautions, the lee points of the lower 
yards seem to furrow the waters. 

It is as though the mighty spirit of our opposite neighbour. 
Mount Wellington, incensed at his majestic repose being broken 
by a succession of new arrivals, with a puff of angry breath 
would scatter the intruders, ships, cargo, and crew, to the elements ; 
but the good genius speedily relapses into loving warmth, and 
pleasant quiet, and all is peaceful as before. 

Surrounded by fattening kine, luxuriant crops of fruit, and 
seas of golden wheat, belted in with forests of blue gum trees, the 
sons of the soil live in peace, plenty, and health, in this favoured 
land. And should Master Wombat or Bandicoot during the 
night take a liking to our field of ash-leaved potatoes, on the mor- 
row, with our faithful dog Keeper, we will track him home, and in 
«tem, perhaps unfair, reprisal, half-a-dozen bronze- wings, whose 
whereabouts we discover by their well-known coo and whirr and 
mstle among the podded wattles, shall fall before our unerring 

Or, for a novelty, we will seek and hunt that extraordinary 


mammalmn animal known as the omithoiynchua paradoxus, or 
duck-billed platypus, peculiar to TaBmania and New Holland. 

This animal la about twenty inches long, having a flattened 
bodj, somewhat like the otter, and is clothed with a dark eoll 
fur. The elongated nose vary much resembles the beak of a 
duck, like which these animals feed upon water insects, shell- 
flsh, and aquatic plants. 


The ieet are fire-toed and webbed, and in the fore-f^t this 
membrane extends beyond the nails ; the male is armed with a spur 
on each hind leg. This curious animal, in which a duck's beak 
is UDJted to the body of a quadruped, rolls itself up like a hedge- 
hog when it sleeps in its burrows on the banks of the streams 
whence its food is derived. 

Hobart Town, the capital of the island, leans against the slopes 
of Mount Welliagton, whose rugged greenstone sumiuit, 4,000 feet 
in height, is capped with snow eight mouths iu the year; its base 
being clothed with brushwood or scrub, so dense and high as to 
render it unsafe to depart from the regular worn tracks ; wanderers 
therefrom, unable to force their way through, having frequently 
been found dead, almost within call of human abodes. 

Staadiag upon and spreading over several hills, with broad 
streets running at right angles, its brick-built houses give a 
thoroughly English aspect to Hobart Town; while below and 


b^tmd, the crystal waters of the Derwent thread their erer- 
varying way in gmceful cuireB around lofty hilla, and into 
sheltered nooka dotted with farms, smiling villages, raddy apple 
orchards, and cottages overtrailed with geraninma, on the borders 
of its pleasant shores, all being thrown into bold relief by the 
heavy forest masses in the back gronnd. 

A wide quay, crowded with oil caska, atacks of timber, cases 
and packages of merchandise of every deecription, fringea the 

cove which lavea HobartTown; abroad pathway on the wharf 
cloac to the water's edge being preaerved for foot-passeogera ; and 
thero, in line with rice ships from India, Mauritius sugar ahipa, 
and discharging whalers, the Petrel lay aafely moored. 

The deck had been well acrubbed, as was the wont of her care- 
ful chief officer, who loved his ship ; the yards, atanding and run- 
ning ri^ng, were all taut and trim, and the ensigQ lay upon the 
locker, bent to the halyards, ready for hoisting on the firat stroke 
of the eight beUs, which would summon the crew to breakfast. 

Shortly before this hour a portly personage, holding a young 
maiden by the hand, walked up the gangway, and replied by a 

VAN DIEIUN'3 lahd-^-tasmava. 159 

kindly tonch of his hat to the sa]ute^of the chief offioer, who 
ftdvanced to meet the visitor; at the aame moment the aignabniui 
ran the ensign up to the peak, for the visitor waa worthy of all 
honor — it was the Gcovemor, Sir John Franklin. 

He had been attracted by the fine bowB of the Petrel, and her 
clean run astern, and thei:«fore came on boaid; he now scanned 

the masts and gear aloft, and next noticed the decks and lower 

" Smart, clean Bhip, offioer," s)ud the Arctic Navigatorj "she 
reflects great credit upon you, sir. I have always obaerved that 
as are the officers so ia their vesseL I like to see officers take 
pride in their ships." Afteralittle further conrersatioa on Tarioos 
topics the good-natured Governor departed, saying, " Present my 
compliments to your commander ; good morning, sir." 

" Good morning, your Honor," replied the well-pleased chief 


officer, as be conducted the veteran to the quay along which Sir 
John and his little friend continued their morning walk. 

On the peninsula of Port Arthur is the settlement for the 
doubly-convicted and worst criminals ; here, guarded by a cordon 
of bloodhounds, the wretched men pass their weary lives, and 
callous indeed must that mind be which can witness unmoved 
these thousand chained men, cast off and spurned by society for 
their crimes, worshipping the God of justice and love. 

The convicts having formerly expressed a preference for a 
minister of the Wesleyan denomination, one of those worthy men 
has ever since been stationed at the place as chaplain. 

A file of armed soldiers being arrayed on either side of the pulpit, 
the minister ascends, and after a simple hymn, and the offering of 
devout prayer amid intense silence, the sacred sublime lessons of 
peace towards God, and good will to man, are taught to many who 
never before experienced human sympathy, and hear now for the 
first time of duty, truth, morals, and religion. 

Van Dieman's Land formerly received many cargoes of female 
convicts; of these some were employed in washing and sewing for 
the male convicts, and also for the colonists generally ; others 
were assigned to the residents as domestic servants, and a sadly 
incorrigible set they were. 

A newly-arrived lady of our acquaintance obtained a convict- 
servant from the dep6t, in the usual manner, and the new inmate 
seemed a model of neatness, industry, and politeness. On the 
second day of her residence, the maid requested permission to 
remove to her new home a box containing her best clothes, which, 
by her statement, had been left at her former situation. The 
imsuspecting mistress consented to the requisite temporary 
absence, and great was the alarm in the house at the non-return 
of the servant, fear lest some accident had befallen her being the 
uppermost sentiment. 

The next day, Sunday, was passed in anxious suspense, some- 


what alleviated by the assurance of older residents, that the girl 
would probably be discovered on the Monday morning, and most 
likely in the lock-up ; which surmise proved correct, for the model 
housemaid had been found by the police at midnight, drunk and 
uproarious, and in that state conveyed to the prison. Of course 
the tale of the box turned out to be a fib, a ruse " to get a fly." 

Oft they would inti^iate that the only difference between them 
and their mistresses was just the accidental circumstance that one 
class had emigrated for fear of being transported, and the other 
class, the " government people," as they termed themselves, not 
having been quite so prudent, had been caught; and so all had 
arrived at the same place. 

One young lady, indignant at the prudence of her mistress in 
locking drawers and cupboards, assured her that suspicion against 
her attendant on that ground was unnecessary; she, the maid, 
would scorn to be a thief, she had not been sent out for stealing, 
she had been sentenced for murder. 

For many years a desultory warfare was carried on by the out- 
lying stock-keepers and farmers against the aborigines; and to 
^^ knock over a native " was almost as good sport as to bag a kan- 
garoo. A wholesale attempt was once made to capture the poor 
wretches en masse, and all free colonists who were so disposed 
joined in the amusement of the hunt; and the country being 
thoroughly beaten for the game, the blacks were driven into a 
small peninsula; strange to say, the cooped up natives escaped 
one night through the camp of their pursuers, whether by con- 
nivance or by their own cunning has never been clearly made 
out. No one was the better for the battue, save the parties who 
contracted to provision the huntsmen, the government defraying 
the cost of their sustenance. At a subsequent period, a benevolent 
gentleman, Mr, Robinson, undertook by kindness and persuasion 
to bring in the natives, and what the armed host &iled to achieve 
he accomplished single handed. 



The few remaining aborigines, the last of tiheir race, were 
afterwards removed to Flinder's Island, in Basses Strait, where, 
living in idleness upon rations supplied by the government, they 
have become, or will soon be, as extinct as the Dodo, or the 

Heavy crops of wheat, barley, oats, peas, beans, potatoes, tur- 
nips, and fruit, annually prove sources of solid wealth to the 
fanners, particularly on the Launceston side of the island, where 
the rich and fertile vale of the Tamar, blessed with ample rain 
and sunshine, produces matchless cereals and vegetables, of vast 
service to the neighbouring colony of New South Wales in seasons 
of drought, to which it is sometimes subject. 

To Tasmania, happy land, for climate, soil, health and beauty, 
for a while farewell. We leave the little round islet known as the 
Iron Pot, and almost touch the organ pipes of Cape Pillar ; next 
we pass the cocks^comb of Maria Island, and looming high up 
there above the mist which veils the face of ocean we perceive 
the Three Patriarchs on Barren Island; and running along the 
coast of New South Wales, pass the broad entrance of Botany 
Bay; and shooting beyond the South Bluff, open out the lovely 
harbour of Sydney. 





"Where there u gold." — Gen., 2nd chap., llth ver. 

The Great South Land, AuBtral Asia, Terra Aastialia, New 
South Walei, New HoUaad, bj all these names haa the contment 
to which this chapter refers been designated. 

The magnificent discoveries of the continents of America in 
that expansive period of hnman intelligence and action, the 
15th and 16th centuries, induced a dreamy impression that some 
counterbalancing land would be found in the opposite quarter of 
the globe; and the realization of this gec^raphical speculation 
was attempted by the Spaniards, who started on the expedition 
from their far-west colony in Pern, and also by the Dutch from 
thdr eastern settlement in Java. 

In 1605, Pedro Fernandez de Quiros and Lius Vaez de Torres 
sailed from Peru to search for this Austral Land which loomed 
up to their imagination in the distant western horizon, and they 
discovered several of the islands now included in the New Hebrides 


group; and afler separatioQ from his chief, Torres navigated the 
placid coral-reefed straits lying between New Holland and New 
Guinea, since known by his name, Torres Straits. 

In the same year the Dutch despatched a ship from Bantam to 
explore New Guinea; and on its return the vessel sighted the coast 
of Continental Australia; and in 1622 the south-western extremity 
was seen and called Leeuin Land (Lioness Land), from the name 
of the ship which observed it; and five years afterwards Peter 
Van Nuyts sailed along the southern coast fix>m Cape Leeuin 
nearly to Spencer's Gulf. 

The Dutch share in the work and honour of discovery was 
completed by the investigation of De Witt's Land and the Gulf 
of Carpentaria, the first named after the conmiodore of the 
squadron, and the second afler the general who surveyed the 

Little was achieved beyond the mere knowledge of the existence 
of these places, imtil the first voyage of Captain Cook, who, af\;er 
his visit to the islands of New Zealand, sailed westward, and 
keeping a more southerly course than Quiros and Torres, fell in 
with the mainland of Australia; and anchoring in a bay on the 
east coast, gave to it the name of Botany Bay, from the peculiar, 
novel, and wondrous flora found in the neighbourhood \>y the 
naturalists of the expedition. " On Sunday, the 6th May, 1770," 
says the narrator, " we sailed from Botany Bay, and at noon were 
off a harbour which was called Port Jackson (from the name of 
the sailor who first noticed it), and in the evening near a bay to 
which we gave the name of Broken Bay." 

When the United States of America obtained their independence, 
some other home for English criminals became necessary, and 
this newly-discovered region being selected, eleven vessels sailed 
from the Mother Bank, on the 13th May, 1787, conveying 565 
male and 192 female convicts and their guard, and this small 
pioneer fleet arrived in Botany Bay in January, 1788. 

On reaching their destination, it became apparent to the 


Governor, Captain Arthur Phillip, that Botany Bay, from its 
exposure to the heavily rolling sea surf, raised by easterly gales, 
and the scarcity of fresh water, was not a favourable situation for 
a settlement, he therefore proceeded northward in a small boat to 
examine Broken Bay, with a view to the removal of the colony ; 
on his way thither he must necessarily pass the inlet of Port 
Jackson, which Captain Cook had marked as a boat harbour ; and 
on entering the jaws of the two Mountain Bluffs, which over- 
lapping one another, preclude from passing ships the panorama 
of the inner waters, the astonished, admiring governor per- 
ceived opening out before him a romantic, land-locked, extensive 

Removal thither was instantly resolved upon, and to this new 
port the fleet brought round the infant colony; the British ensign 
being hoisted on the shores of Sydney Cove, on the 26th January, 
1788, the anniversary of which event is celebrated in the colony 
as a general holiday and day of rejoicing, salutes being fired, flags 
displayed, pic-nics and excursion parties organized, sailing, rowing, 
and cricket-matches contested. 

This germ of a future empire, numbering one thousand per- 
sons in all, free and convicted (in 1856 the population of New 
South Wales amounted to 269,720 persons), speedily commenced 
the work of civilization: — 

** Now bowed the woods beneath their sturdy stroke," 

tents being pitched on the land thus cleared; and so much did 
the newly-born metropolis resemble the bivouac of a small army 
that a visit to Sydney was long termed by early colonists " going 
to camp." At this period the live stock consisted of one bull, 
four cows,one calf, one stallion, three mares, and three colts. 

The new comers were not allowed to possess their promised 
land without dispute, the settlers experiencing great molestation 
from the natives ; and of the founders of Sydney, as of the builders 



of Jerusalem, after the captivity, it may be said, " Every one with 
one of his hands wrought in the work, and with the other hand 
held a weapon." 

Low down in the scale of humanity, the native Australians 
hardly rise to the intelligence of many forest brutes, which sur- 
round themselves with something that may be termed a home; 
these wandering specimens of the human race, when they wish to 
sleep, erect a piece of bark or bough as a shelter or break-wind, 
make a fire by rubbing two sticks, and with scarcely invention 
enough to ensnare the myriads of birds which abound overhead, 
or entrap the kangaroo or emu, ramble in listless uncertainty, 
obtaining a precarious sustenance by unskilful fishing or upon 

So feeble is their nervous system that a pailful of water in 
which an empty Mauritias sugar mat is steeped, composes an 
intoxicating liquor sufficiently powerful to make twenty persons 
ludicrously drunk; and for the fun of the resulting effects these 
mats were sometimes given by the colonists to the blacks, until 
prohibited on accoimt of the mad excitement caused by this weak 

The settlers found their new home placed amidst a peculiar 
vegetation, and surrounded by animal life of singular forms and 
habits. Prominent among the vegetable novelties were forests 
of acacias, which trees are most frequently so destitute of true 
leaves as to be considered leafless, the petiole or leaf-stalk being 
expanded, and presenting a leaf-like surface, whose functions it 

The true leaves are chiefly discernible in young plants, and it 
is not tmcommon to find all intermediate degrees of development 
between the fully expanded leaf with narrow stalk, and other leaves 
having no blade, but in lieu thereof a broad fleshy footstalk. 

The bark of this order of trees, (fabacaee, or leguminosaee, sub 
order mimosa) has formed a profitable article of export to Eno-land, 
for the use of tanners. 



Gigantic eucalypti, called gum trees, many of them a hundred 
and fifty feet high, and from thirty to forty feet in circumference, 
adorn the landscape, while the curious xanthorrhea, or graSB-tree, 
with shrubby short stem, bearing tufta of long foliage at the 
extrt^niilies, from the midst of which rises a long cylindrical spike 
of flowers resembling a bulrush, and elegant aroucariaa add to 
the peculiar beauty of the scene. 

These magnificent forest trees of perpetual verdure afford home 
and food for milUons of bronze-winged pigeons, cockatoos of every 
variety of plumage; some many-coloared, some of jet hue, others 

milk white; parrots,green, purple, and crimson; superb lyre birds ; 
regent birds in glorious plumage of golden yellow, and silken 



velvet blaok; and rifle birds with gloesy moiled breastpUte of 
dark rifle green, and that hoarse, boifiterons bird, the laughing 

Emus, rivalling the ostrich in fleelness, and swans perfectly 
black, were new and strange wonders to English eyes. 

Not less remarkable were the Australian mammalia; no prowl- 
ing lions or bears, or pasturing deer, or elephanls inhabit this 
lai^e continent, but an altogether singular group of animals, the 
marsupials, bound over its vast plnios by gigantic leaps. 

The different species of marsupials agree in their general struc- 
ture and those characters which refer to the premature prodiictdon 
and subsequent nutrition of the youug in an abdominal poudi 
with which nature has provided the female parents. In thii 
pouch the young are protected as in a nest, and ia early in- 
fcncy retire thither if alarmed, and are thus carried off by the 
mother; coming out to graze or to gambol when all is secure. 

This pecuhar anatomical structure being restricted to auimsb 
found in portions of the globe in which rain is scarce, mostof 


them being inhabitants of Australia, with the exception of one or 
two species found ia South America, has led to the conjecture 
that this singular conrormation is a provision in cases of drought 
to which such localities are subject. 

If, in seasons of long absence of rain, which in these countries 
sometimes occur, the pacent had to leave her progeny and travel 
a considerable distance to obtain water, before her return the 

young marsupials might be dead; hence this movable nest is 
attached to the person of the female, in which the young can be 
conveyed by the mother to the necessary supply of water, either 
for herself or them. 

Another peculiarity of the marsupial order is the weakness of 
the voice which prevails throughout the group; and even this 
faint voice is seldom heard. 


Of the kangaroos, which are the most noted of the marsupials, 
there are nearly forty species known, varying much in size, some 
attaining the length of eight feet from the nose to the tip of the 
tail, and weighing two cwts. ; the flesh is good eating, and a kan- 
garoo hunt is considered excellent sport; but the difficulty of 
catching or shooting them has increased, avoidance of Europeans 
saving them from being shot; and their marvellous leaping power, 
and ferocity when attacked by dogs, enabling them to sustain a 
chase on fair terms. 

Hundreds of criminals were yearly transported from the mother 
country to found a new Britain in the southern world ; and tickets 
of leave were granted as rewards for good behaviour, which 
passes or certificates, while they prohibited the recipients from 
leaving the colony, permitted them to work for their own benefit, 
either by labouring for hire, or engaging in business as prin- 
cipals, and a new life being thus opened to these persons, many 
became rich and honorable. 

Tickets of leave in a new impeopled country, with scarcity of 
labour, are sources of undoubted good; — to the condemned, in 
whom hope is thus revived, and a new opportunity afforded of 
fulfilling the moral and social duties, and obtaining the advan- 
tages of life, and surely such a result is in every respect desirable 

the colonists also benefit by this system, being enabled to obtain 
more abundant and economical labour. 

The question of tickets of leave in an old or peopled country 
assumes an entirely different aspect, for where ten free applicants 
compete for every vacant post of labour, it is cruelty to the 
criminal to start him afresh in the race of life with a tremendous 
blot on his name, and at fearful odds with the imconvicted ; he 
has scarcely any chance of subsistence but by resorting to his 
previous course of life, with such additional skill and inten- 
sified vice as his prison thoughts and companions may have 
suggested. Prison piety is hypocrisy. 


Moreover, it is an unfair slur upon the untarnished character of 
the free artizan, who, if a convict workman is accepted to his 
prejudice infers that virtue goes for nothing with employers ; and 
those who may be required to work with ticket men must either 
give up their employment or lower their tone of morals, by asso- 
ciating at the same bench with convicted thieves and murderers. 
By going to a new colony the free laborer voluntarily seeks compe- 
tition with the felon population, and these objections do not obtain. 

The fresh locating of felons in any given place, or the discon- 
tinuance of transportation to any particular colony, depends upon 
other considerations; here is simply discussed the question of 
tickets of leave as a wise course in an old country, or the con- 
trary; it is, without doubt, an intense, unmitigated evil. 

Some of the criminals acquired fortune and respect; others 
escaped to the bush, where, obtaining arms, they lived a roving, 
freebooting life; and hunted, or were hunted down by the settlers, 
according to whichever party happened to be the stronger at the 

The bushrangers were not generally addicted to the commission 
of murder, but waylaid the returning drays, with whose loads of 
tea, sugar, flour, clothes, and alcoholic liquors they decamped; 
and sometimes entered lone houses, "baling up" the inmates lest 
any should escape and alarm the neighbouring settlers. 

" Baling up" was effected by placing the residents in one room, 
over which an armed bushranger stood guard while his com- 
panions ransacked the premises, packing up whatever articles 
were intended to be taken ; and on these occasions their 
hardly-ridden spent horses were exchanged for fresh ones 
with which the stables of settlers were for the most part well 

A huge mountainous back-bone runs from Van Dieman's Land 
through the whole continent of Eastern Australia; this great 
chain is not a single ridge, but a broad tract of elevated land, 


from which rise many mountain ranges, varying in height and 
extent; some being steep and broken with deep ravines, and 
assuming so much the character of cliffs on a bold sea coast, that 
it is possible to drop a stone a thousand feet down on to the forest 
below; while for a himian being safely to descend to the foot of 
the trees a circuit of sixteen miles would be necessary to find a 
path into the valley. 

Sailing along the east coast, the promontories formed by spurs 
from this mountain range form well-known headlands of such 
curious configurations as to have suggested to Captain Ck)ok the 
appropriate names of Mount Camel, the Pigeon House, Hat Hill, 
Mount Dromedary, &c. 

Other portions constitute vast table lands of considerable ele- 
vation above the sea level, affording excellent pasturage for 
millions of sheep and cattle; and thousands of settlers, either 
purchasing sheep or taking charge of the flocks of others, on 
shares of profit, banish themselves from society for the year 
round. These squatters visit the principal towns annually, to sell 
their wool, procure clothing, tea, tobacco, flour, &c., for the follow- 
ing season of absence ; and drays drawn by sturdy oxen thronging 
the streets indicate that the wool season has commenced, and 
every store is busy with the numerous commissions of the returning 
up-country settlers. Variously combining mutton, tea, and damper, 
for breakfast, dinner, and supper, the sheep farmer passes his life 
in the company of his dudeen; and the operations of cutting his 
negrohead tobacco into fine shavings, and rubbing it between the 
palms of his hands, into fitting atoms for his short black pipe, 
doubly increase the joy of the fragrant weed. Damper is flour 
mixed with water, and baked in wood-ashes, and after a time 
is preferred to fermented bread by all true bushmen. 

Shearing, hunting the kangaroo, shooting birds, wild dogs, and 
riding after stray cattle, or to a neighbouring stockyard some 
twenty miles distant, serve to amuse and give healthy exercise 
to the free, independent, and self-relying squatter. 


At an early period of the colony's history the climate and 
grasses of the interior of New South Wales were found to be 
adapted for the Merino sheep, and in 1803, Mr. John Macarthur, 
who had some years previously obtained a few pure-bred sheep 
from the Dutch colony at the Cape of Good Hope, returned to 
England with specimens of Australian wool, and in 1806 con- 
veyed to the colony two ewes and three rams from the flock of 
King George III. Thus royally originated the flocks of Australia. 

The first importation into England of this wool was 245 lbs., 
in 1807 ; in the year 1851, the Australian wool imported amounted 
to upwards of 36,000,000 lbs., valued at two millions sterling. 

On approaching Port Jackson, the thinly-grassed sandstone 
clifls, projecting into the sea as solemn warders, impart an un- 
favourable impression of sterility, and Botany Bay gives faithless 
promise of a good and safe haven; presently a lighthouse on a 
lofty cliff is observed, but we seem sailing up to a dead wall, so 
shut in is Sydney harbour by the North and South Heads. On 
further advance between these bold bluffs, a vast indented lake 
spreads its clear blue waters before us. The shores hollowed into 
snug coves, margined with silver sands or laminated sandstone 
cliffs, invite to anchor and repose by their offers of quiet shelter 
and deep water close to the beach ; the bright sunlight glinting 
on the sombre foliage of the evergreen vegetation, contrasting 
strongly with the back ground of white sandstone; imbue the 
soul of the newly-arrived with a sense of intensely refreshing de- 
light after the monotony of a sea voyage. 

Proceeding up this magnificent lake, of which, says Sir Edward 
Parry, the Arctic navigator, " words can never describe the 
beauty," bearing on its glassy surface all descriptions of boat 
and vessel, whose every rope and spar is strongly reflected in the 
translucent stream, we pass large and elegant villas on the slopes 
of the deep coves, their stonework glittering in the warm sun- 
shine, being thrown out in bold relief against the dark verdant 
forest in which they stand embowered. Now we meet a panting 


170 kV KlilSl- VUVAOK. 

steamer, swiftly rushmg to tlie Hunter; and now a full-ri^ed 
ship gently glidii^ seaward, bound home, or to India; and next 
■hoot past forts on headlands, and rocky islets in nudchaiinel 

Proximity to some hive of human mdustry becomea more and 
more apparent as we sail b> ships at anchor, and forests of 
masts become visible over jutting points of land then suburban 
Woolloomoolloo presents itself home of rich merchants , and a 
more imposing isolated residence betokens the dwelling of a 
superior functionary, while a dense mass of houses and stores 
wharves and warehouses, near the Fort and on Millers Pomt, 
suggest rather than reveal a large Lit\ , for Sydney is placed side- 
ways to the harbour, and the numercus indentations and pro- 
jections of the land so hide the van(us prrtiuus as to preclude 
the imposing water-view which manj fir less important cities 

The eastern portion of the south coast of New Holland forms 
a wide open bay, bounded by a tract of comparatively low wooded 


land ; at its north-western comer is a narrow opening, the entrance 
of Port Phillip, and on the east of this inlet stands a rocky pro- 
montory. Point Nepean. Advancing through the gut or channel, 
we open out a large sheet of salt water, an inland s(»a in fact, 
between thirty and forty miles across, connected with Bhhh^n 
Straits by a natural ship canal ; on the left is Geelong, and before 
us is the Yarra Yarra, nine miles up which small stream stands 
Melbourne, now the the capital city of the Southern World. 

The discovery of this expansive bay was made in the begin- 
ning of the present century, and is thus described by the; inde- 
fatigable Flinders : — 

" On the west side of the rocky point then? was a small opcjn- 
ing with breaking waters across it, howevcjr on a<lvancing a little 
more to the westward the opening assumed a more? jnt(*r<'.sting 
aspect, and I bore away U) liavc a nearer view. A large extent 
of water presently bcjcame visible within side, and although the 
entrance seemed to be narrow, and there were in it strong rip- 
lings like breakers, I was induced to HU*f*r in. 

*' The extensive harlxjur we harl thus um^xpectedJy foum] Imjj>- 
posed must be Western Port, althrnigh tlie nurrowmtHB trf the 
entrance did not agree with Mr. Ha«s*s ac<y>iint. On my r<;tum 
to Port Jackson, I found this iAhcm hinfl >>een djsc^/v<frwl alxnit 
ten weeks bdbre my visit (Ajiril, 1802), by Lietitenant John 
Murray, who had stioceeded CajHain Grant in i}m fjmittuiwl tpf 
the Lady Nel«on; he had gir^m it the name t/f VtfVi Pljillip, 
and to the rocky pr/ijit €m ihtt t*Mi nulti t/f the tftdrsuuntt i}uii 
of Point Nepean; arid tr> aii Htnituimtut within tlie }my^ Arihw^n 
Seat, from it« sttpfKMied mmfmhhutrA Ut th^ eraf^ <if tliat iiani^ 
near Edinbur^, The ccmritry arrnand V^rri Plijllip l«a« a pkain/ig 
and in many part* a ftfrikUi ai^j^^^araticff. It in i» a ip'vsai 
measure a grsmy eoantryf and «i».\nA>y. '/f mtiffM/rtinff ntwh <:attle^ 
though better calcolaUd fw tHiy^.** 


In J 803, Captain Collins arrived, with the intention of forming 
a settlement, but abandoned the place in a short period, probably 
not finding fresh water so near to the straits as he deemed desir- 
able that an infant colony, surrounded by hostile natives, should 
be located, he therefore removed to Storm Bay, founding there 
the colony of Van Dieman's Land. 

Slight attention was paid to the capabilities of the Port PhiUip 
district imtil about the year 1835, when the neighbouring colonies 
became aware of the truth of Flinder's remark, " caJculated for 
sheep," and thenceforward vast flocks of sheep, amounting in 
1852 to six millions and a half, gave rise to extensive shipments 
of wool, and Port Phillip steadily progressed until 1851, when, 
as with the wave of a fairy's wand, from being a thriving branch 
of New South Wales, it suddenly started into the chief place 
among the Australian colonies. 

From this period the development of Victoria has been magical; 
and the wastes over which, twenty years ago, the natives wandered 
in listless apathy, have been planted with thriving towns, teeming 
with Englishmen, busy, persevering, fortune-making. The very 
names of " Victoria," and " Melbourne," indicate the recent date 
of the settlement. 

At the first burst of the gold-diggings the newly arriving hosts 
were compelled to dwell in tents, and " Canvas Town" vyiU long 
be recollected by Victorians. To this condition of sckatters has 
rapidly succeeded the advanced state of civilization and popu- 
lation, understood by the ideas suggested by daily newspapers, 
railways, theatres, legislative assembUes elected by ballot, gas- 
works, banks, races, pubHc buildings, and a well-endowed univer- 
sity. Sustaining its large and rapidly-increasing population upon 
its home produce, Victoria sends to the mother country vast 
quantities of wool and hides, &c., and the yearly export of gold 
from this and the other AustraHan colonies amounts to so many 
tons as represent a coined value of £20,000,000. 


new south wales — ^pobt phillip gold. 178 


The crust of the earth, as far below the surface as man has 
been enabled to descend, is composed of two great classes of sub- 
stances ; the one formed by the subsidence of matters previously 
suspended in water, and hence termed aqueous rocks, the other 
group from having been acted upon by heat, is therefore called 
igneous rocks, all of which latter series occupy a lower position 
than the aqueous deposits. 

These igneous masses appear to have subsequently irrupted 
into some layers of the superincumbent deposits, and in the 
cracks or fissures which were formed in the cooling of these 
rocks, many minerals lay secreted, one of the principal being 
quartz, generally found opaque, but sometimes translucent and 
crystalline, in which state it is termed " rock crystal." 

It is in these quartz veins that gold is generally found, either 
in small lumps or in flakes and grains, and sometimes diflused 
through the quartz in extremely minute particles. Water acting 
upon these veins disintegrates the masses, and washes away 
the fine particles of quartz sand from the gold, which sinks 
by its greater weight. 

Hence gold is obtained either by searching the beds of present 
or former rivers, and picking out the particles of large or small 
size as the case may be— dry diggings; or by triturating the 
quartz into powder, and agitating the mixed mass in vessels with 
water, by which operation the sand separates from the gold, 
the latter falling by gravitation into suitable receptacles — wet 

Gold is found in most countries, but so sparingly that it i. 
only in some parts of the globe that the quantity is sufficiently 
large to compensate for the labour of procuring it Its unchang- 
ableness, colour, liutre, and density have conferred on it the most 
elevated position among metals. Gold was originally obtained in tlie 


river sands of India; it was also pi-ocured by the Pharaohs in 
Nubia and Ethiopia at the cost of much human life and suffering. 
Diodorus relates of the Egyptian gold-diggers : — 
"The vast number employed in these mines are bound in 
fetters, and compelled to work day and night without intermission, 
and without the least hope of escape; for they set over them 
barbarian soldiers, who speak a foreign language, so that there 
is no possibility of conciliating them by persuasion, or the kind 
feelings which result from familiar converse. When the earth 
containing the gold is hard they soften it by the application of 
fire ; and when it has been reduced to such a state that it yields 
to moderate labour, several myriads of these unfortunate people 
break it up with iron picks. The strongest of the labourers, 
provided with chisels, clear the marble shining rock by mere 
force without any attempt at skill. Those who are above thirty 
years of age are employed to pound pieces of the stone, of cer- 
tain dimensions, with iron pestles in stone mortars, until reduced 
to the size of a lentil. The whole is then transferred to women 
and old men, who put it into mills arrayed in a long row, two 
or three persons being employed at the same mill, and it is groimd 
imtil it is reduced to to a fine powder. No attention is paid to 
their persons; they have not even a rag to cover themselves, 
and so wretched is their condition that every one who witnesses 
it deplores the excessive misery they endure. No rest, no in- 
termission from toil are given either to the sick or maimed; 
neither the weakness of age, nor woman's infirmities are re- 
garded ; all are driven to their work with the lash, till at last, 
overcome with the intolerable ^weight of their afflictions, they 
die in the nddst of their toil; so that these unhappy creatures 
always expect worse to come than what they endure at the 
present, and long for death as far preferable to life. At length 
the masters take the stone thus ground to powder, and carry 
it away to undergo the final process. 


They spread it upon a broad table, a little inclined, and pour- 
ing water upon it, rub the pulverised stone until all the earthy- 
matter is separated, which, flowing away with the water, leaves 
the heavier particles behind upon the board. This operation is 
often repeated, the stone being rubbed lightly with the hand; 
they then draw off the useless and earthy substance with fine 
sponges, gently applied, and the gold comes out quite pure. 
Other workmen then take it away by weight and measure, and 
putting it with a fixed proportion of lead, a little tin, and barley 
bran into earthen crucibles well closed with clay, leave it in a 
furnace for five successive days and nights ; after which it is suf- 
fered to cool. The crucibles are then opened, and nothing is 
found in them but the pure gold, a little diminished in quantity. 

Such is the method of extracting the gold on the confines of 
Egypt, the result of so many and such toils. 

Nature, indeed, teaches that as gold is obtained with immense 
labour, so it is kept with difficulty, creating great anxiety, and 
attended in its use both with pleasure and grief.*' 

The river sands of Hungary were at one period searched for 
this precious metal, and large supplies were obtained from that 
source; and the rivers of Africa have long yielded, and still con- 
tinue to yield, a considerable quantity yearly, procured in the 
same manner. 

The twenty shilling pieces, began to be issued in 1664, from 
being made of the gold brought from Guinea by the African 
Company, were for the first time called guineas. 

The discovery of America by Columbus opened out new sources 
of supply; and from Peru, Mexic^j, and Brazil , Europe has 
received most of the silv^^r and gold which hare been employed 
during the last three hundred years, the quantity amounting to 
about £8,000,000 yearly. 

During the present century the Ural Hountains in Ruasia have 
been worked for gold, and the annual prrxloction is estimated at 


In 1844, Sir B. Murchison, in his address to the Geographical 
Society alluded to the possibility of finding gold in Australia, 
from the geological similarity of its moimtain chain to the Ural 
Mountains. The attention of a colonial gentleman being at- 
tracted by these remarks, he sought and found specimens of gold 
in 1849, but from excessive caution on the part of the governor 
the great subject was kept in abeyance until Mr. Hargreaves, 
with Cahfornian experience, re-made the discovery. 

This loadstone, the golden calf written against by philosophers, 
and worshipped by Hebrews and others in all time, has attracted 
many thousands to the antipodal country, whose earth " hath 
dust of gold," and has caused Australia to become world renowned 
as " rich in cattle and in silver and gold." 

In 1848, the total amount of gold in use in the world was 
estimated at £600,000,000, and by the recent additions it may 
probably be now taken at nearly £800,000,000, so large have been 
the receipts, principally from California and Australia. 

Gold has been employed from the earliest ages as a favorite 
material for objects of personal and household decoration ; thus 
we read of ear-rings and bracelets of gold, and that the Ark of 
the Hebrews was covered with gold as also the staves and the 
altar; various carved works of the temple of Jerusalem and 
Solomon's throne were of ivory, overlaid with pure gold, and his 
drinking-vessels were of this metal. 

Greek and Eoman histories abound in references to orna- 
ments for the person, and articles of use made of the precious 

A large quantity of gold is used for gilding, either by being 
dissolved in mercury, and applied to the object from which the 
mercury is afterwards separated by heat, the quicksilver rising in 
vapour, the gold being left as a film on the article ; or by boiling 
the articles to be gilded in a gold solution, to which bicarbonate of 
soda has been added; or on the plan which has been of late 
years most frequently practised, by galvanic deposit. 


Gold is unchangeable in the air, and does not rust like iron; it 
is very malleable, and may be beaten into thin leaves of a thick- 
ness not greater than the Y^hnTS^ ^^ *^ ^^^^ ? ^ single grain of 
gold may be beaten into a leaf which will cover 56 square inches, 
and may be drawn out into a wire 500 feet in length. 

The specific gravity of gold is nearly nineteen and a half times 
that of water; thus, if a cube of water would balance a certain 
weight, a cube of gold of the same dimensions as the water would 
balance nineteen and a half times that weight. 

Gold requires a very powerful heat to melt it, and when 
melted remains almost fixed in the fire; however, as it can 
be made to gild silver placed over it, it is, to a slight extent, 

The mode of assaying gold, mixed with other metals, is by 
taking a given weight of the substance and mixing it with a 
portion of lead and a known quantity of pure silver in excess. If 
the gold containing alloy were in the larger proportion, it would 
shield the alloy from the action of the lead and acid, therefore it 
is necessary to disperse the particles of gold, which is done by 
adding a large proportion of pure silver. The whole is then put 
into a cupel made of bone ashes, and heated in a small furnace; 
the lead melts and penetrates the little cupel, carrying with it ail 
the alloy contained in the mass, except silver. The metallic sub- 
stance or compound, which now consists of gold and silver only, 
is next removed from the cupel, and is rolled, flattened, and 
treated with nitric acid, which dissolves out all the silver, the 
gold remaining unaffected, nitric acid by itself not being capable 
of dissolving gold. The residuum of pure gold is then washed 
several times and weighed, the difference between the original 
weight of the substance and the last weight being carefully ascer- 
tained, the loss shows the alloy, the last weighing giving the 
amount of gold. 

Gold is soluble in a mixture of hydrochloric (muriatic) and 
nitric (aquafortis) acids, which mixture of the two acids is known 

A A 


as aqua regia; the brown liquor formed by dissolving gold in the 
mixture is termed solution of gold. 

Gold has a powerful affinity for mercury or quicksilver, and 
readily imites with that metal ; if the gold be in the state of a fine 
powder or of scales, an excess of quicksilver readily absorbs it, 
forming an amalgam. 

When dissolved, gold may be tested in several ways : — 

1. By adding to the mixture a solution of green vitriol (sul- 
phate of iron), which precipitates the gold in the form of a brown 

2. By the addition of a solution of chloride of tin (muriate of 
tin) a purple or reddish brown precipitate is obtained, known as 
the purple of cassius. 

Gold is always estimated in value in relation to the standard; 
every pound or ounce of gold being theoretically divided into 
twenty-four parts or carats. The gold coins issued from the English 
mint being composed of twenty-two parts of gold and two parts of 
copper, are therefore said to be twenty-two carats fine. The 
French coinage standard is not so high, being eighteen parts gold 
and two of alloy. 

If an article or coin contain twenty-three parts gold and one 
of some other metal, it would be termed twenty-three carats fine; 
if eighteen parts gold and six parts of another metal it would be 
termed eighteen carats fine. Pure or fine gold would be twenty- 
four carats fine, and contain no alloy. 

Gold is purchased by the Bank of England at the rate of 
£3 178. 9d. per ounce of twenty-two carats fine. 

Gold has always been extensively employed as a medium of 
exchange ; in the earlier times by weight, facility of use being at 
a later period increased by stamping the head of a God in the 
first instance, and afterwards of the sovereign or chiefi and 
defining the value of each coin, which thus carried a certificate of 
its worth impressed upon itself. 

new south wales port phillip — gold. 17u 

Gold Standards and Marks. 

The English law requires every article made of gold, not Imviiifi; 
a precious stone in it, to be hall-marked. 

Snuff-boxes, medals, gold rings, and watch-cases an* g^axTally 
marked; rings and coins are made of the tw(»nty-two caratu 
standard; the other articles above-mentioned generally of oAirhUum 
carats fine; but it is also allowed to make them so low an iii'UuiU, 
twelve, and even nine carats. 

The marks for Gold are — 

1st. The Manufacturers' Marks: the initials of hi« Chriwtiiiw 
and Surname. 

2nd. The Standard Marks:— 

For England . . A Crown and 22 

A Crown and 18 
15, and tlje I>er;imal Mark« ,62f> 
12, and the Df<;iirial Marks '6 
9, and thr; Der;jxfiai Marki 'ti7^ 

3rd. The HaU ybaks.— 

For Ltonnkm , . A I^jopard'f lifisA 

„ BirmiDgbam. An Auclior 

„ Sheffiedd • , A CV-nrn 

„ Chester . , Tur*^ Wsa^iA .SJi<«jv<3t, 

„ York . , , Tiu'r Citr Ansa 

„ Exeter * . A Ca<cie 

„ GhuB^nf * , Trj^ Citr Anuit 

„ Doblm * , iii'AnrwUk. 

4th. A Tariabk: letter v, o<«u'>vt t^^i^ V^ssi^, 

5th. The head of tine ^j^kpc^jp* v^ ^Usju'/Uc tf>; ^> .i*.ir- 

These markf are ii»^ii«ui;v i^^-jf,^. ystLf'^y.uinriy v^ 1 





" Within a, long recesa there lies a bay: 
An iEsland shades il from the rolling sen. 
And foriDB a port eecnre for ships lo ride: 
Broke by tlie jutting land on either side 
In double streama tbe briaj waters glide, 
Between two rows of roeks; a sjlvaa scent 
Appears above, and groves for ever green." 

The starry veil of Bight had Bcarcely been lifted from 
silent city of Sydney by the pale-faced dawn, than the sound 
upheaving aachor and the rattle of the rigging, as the ropes 


through the blocks, warned us that we were about to depart from 
our ' temporary home. Dropping down the harbour by the in- 
fluence of the sluggish tide, rather than by any strength in the 
soft-breathing wind, we hove to in Watson's Bay to undergo the 
customary police examination, a process to which all ships leaving 
the colony were subjected, to prevent the clandestine departure of 
convicts. Summoned upon deck, passengers and crew answered 
to their names, as the list returned to the Customs authorities by 
the captain was called over by the police superintendent. One 
man who had shipped as a sailor, on presenting himself, stated 
that although he was a convict his term had expired; but on 
shewing his ticket, it was observed that the name given to the 
captain on his engagement did not correspond with the name on 
his pass, an event which he had anticipated and prepared for: to 
receive an advance of wages for the voyage, and then be detained 
being the object of his trick. 

The superintendent could not permit him to sail in the ship 
without rectification of this ii-regularity, and as the amount of 
his advance was too unimportant to justify any detention of the 
vessel, he was conveyed ashore by the police, to play off further 
clever dodges on the unsuspecting. 

Eight days' sailing on waters justly termed Pacific, brought us, 
at early morning, within sight of the Three Kings' Islands, lying 
off the north point of New Zealand; and running down the coast 
past Doubtless Bay and Wangaroa Harbour, at dusk we anchored 
in the Bay of Islands, a good cable's length from Kororareka 

From the many whaling ships resorting thither, this place had 
gradually assumed the importance of a seaport, until it numbered 
two hundred houses, among which grog-shops and marine store 
depots abounded; the boats continually passing between the ships 
and the shore, and canoes laden with agricultural produce giving 
animation to the land-locked bay, upon whose tranquil sarfiu^ 
reposed numerous picturesque small islands. 


Bidding farewell to our good ship for a season, we started on 
an expe<lition into the interior. A walk of several hours* dura- 
tion through an open broken country, with many indications of 
volcanic origin, brought us tq the Waimato, where our country- 
men had fonued a little English village, farms rich in cattle and 
sheep, gardens abounding in English fruits and flowers, substantial 
houses, and a church — the result and out-crop of many years' 
residence of English missionaries. 

While resting in this valley of peace, refreshing to the eye and 
suggestive of home, many tales were related of the dangers and 
odd incidents which had occurred at the early period of the settle- 
ment. The following one particularly amused us : — ^we were told 
that a ship captain, desiring to consult the representative of the 
government, was informed that he would meet with that func- 
tionary at the new house which was building yonder. On reach- 
ing the spot indicated, he accosted two workmen, as he supposed, 
and enquired for the official of whom he was in search ; great 
was his amazement on discovering that in the persons of the two 
besmocked bricklayers he beheld the types of government and 
religion, for one of the august workmen was the British Resi- 
dent and the other the principal missionary, engaged in the 
usefnl though undignified occupation of building a chinmey. 
We laughed as we imagined the British Premier assisting 
the Archbishop of Canterbury to fix a chinmey-pot or dig a 

After a sound slumber, we rose at daybreak, and prosecuted 
our journey to the head of the Waihou branch of the Hokianga, 
near which spot resided a French gentleman, the Baron de 
Thierry, who had created considerable excitement in the infancy 
of the colony — and upon this New Zealand lion we made a 
morning call. 

Prefacing the visit by a note forwarded half an hour before our 
approach, at the expiration of that time we ascended the hill 
upon whose summit the Baron resided. 


Half-way up we were met by the Baron, who courteously 
received us with a graceful salute of welcome to Mount Isabel, 
and conducted us to his hut or log-house, built of rough slabs. 

The interior of the hut had with great ingenuity been pasted 
all over with old newspapers, and the surface whitened with 
lime, procured by burning shells ; the white wall had then been 
divided throughout by dark lines into squares resembling granite 
blocks, and these squares had been liberally and tastefully 
sprinkled with spots of various dyes obtained from different 
native woods, and this decoration had a peculiar and novel 
effect, not at all unpleasing. 

A few benches and a trestled table formed the principal 
furniture in the chief reception room, the cause of which sparse 
upholstery was accounted for by the enthusiastic Baron on the 
ground that he had determined to have nothing in his establish- 
ment but arti(?les constructed of native materials, and hitherto he 
had been unable to complete the necessary arrangements for the 
manufacture of furniture from the woods of the country. 

The hospitable Baron pressed us to remain to dinner; but 
reference to the state of the tide and some consideration for his 
larder caused us to decline the invitation; but we could not, 
however, resist his urgent request to partake of luncheon, which 
was served with many apologies for the absence of bread and 
biscuit, neither of which, at that moment, the establishment 
happened to possess ; in default thereof we were presented with 
abundance of excellent peach jam and boiled potatoes, nor lacked 
we the accompaniment of good port wine. 

While the potatoes were being cooked, we were favored with 
the Baron's plans and schemes for the future government of the 
country. He commenced by reading a decree published in the 
Sydney newspapers, the preamble of which began thus, in true 
royal style: — " I, Charles, Baron de Thierry, King of Nukuhiva, 
Sovereign Chief of Hokianga, &c." The principal points of that 
decree related to the distribution of each and every sum of 



£100,000 proimscfl to 1m» nKieivHl from emigrant settlers at a 
fixed pri(Mi ptT Jicro for land; part was to be expended in the 
making of roads and construction of 1)ridge8, in the building of 
hospitals and endowment of churches and schools, a portion being 
reser>'od as payment for the Baron's sovereign rights. 

Reganling the origin of his claim, our host stated that about 
the year 1825 he? had advanced a large sum of money for the 
purchase of land in New Zealand, and his agent had forwarded 
him a document ])uqK)rting to be the cession of territory and 
sovereignty by the Hokianga Chiefs, and upon this he based his 
rights; which, however, the Chiefs stoutly denied and disputed, 
asserting that the j)erson in question had merely inquired, 
amongst oth(^r matters, t^> whom this and that land belonged; 
that the native proprietors never knew they were parting with 
their property, and never purposed doing so. 

Time rolled on, and the adventurous Baron, ^who had been 
compelled to retire from Nukuhiva, one of the Marquesas Islands, 
where he had started kingship, proceeded to Sydney, and there 
announced his intention of visiting New Zealand to take posses- 
sion of his land and assume the sovereign chieftaincy. 

Assembling some sixty followers, the Baron sailed to Hokiangft, 
hoisting his own peculiar flag, and adopting a special official seal. 

Riunour of his intended visit reached the place long before his 
arrival, and caused intense agitation. 

As in a small hired vessel the Baron and his suite ascended 
the river, with colors flying, and firing a salute to hinnifffilf fiom 
the ship's cannonades, the Chiefs hastily assembled and hoisted the 
New Zealand flag and the British ensign, firmly determined to 
oppose his landing. The British flag we know, the French flag 
we know, and the American flag we know, said they, but this 
is a strange one, and we will not respect it, nor shall its owner 
put foot on our land. 

The Baron, however, having re-purchased a piece of ground 
from an European — ^not that he recognised the party's, title, for 
the Baron claimed the land as being within his territory but 


more to show the liberal principles which actuated him — the 
natives justly remarked that they should not object to his settling 
thereon, the English holder of that portion of land having pur- 
chased it fairly from them had a perfect right to either sell it to 
another, or to keep it, or to give it away ; but if he, the Baron, 
landed there, he must not trespass beyond the boundaries of such 
property. Upon this spot the eccentric Baron fixed his establish- 
ment, and from this " Mount Isabel," as he named it, his decrees 
were dated. 

Supplies falling short, his followers decamped one after 
another; and at the period of our visit the Baron was left alone 
in his glory. 

Bidding adieu to the hospitable Baron, three hoiu*s paddling in 
a small canoe, down the heavily timbered Hokianga River, 
brought us to the beautiful stream of the Wai-ma (the clear, 
bright, or pure water), running through a valley several miles in 
length, with a soil of deep, rich, black loam; and wandering 
through this pleasant district, studded with kumara, maize, and 
potato plantations, and patches of wheat, at the end of two hours' 
walk we arrived at the village belonging to the noble-minded, 
high-spirited chief, Tawhai. 

The village, which stood at the foot of a range of thickly 
timbered mountains, whose summits variously terminated in 
picturesque cones, craggy peaks, and table land, had recently 
been rebuilt, under the direction of the chief, in two long lines of 
substantial, well-erected, bulrush huts, many of them having good 
doors and window-frames. Tawhai had been told, he said, that 
in Europe the houses were built in rows, close together, and not 
stragglingly, with the entrances in all directions, as was cus- 
tomary in the native settlements; and after shewing us over the 
whole, and pointing out the hinges, locks and chimneys, and 
internal fittings, such as boxes, looking-glasses, and other con- 
veniences, he triumphantly appealed to us whether his was not 
like a white-man's town. In the year of our visit he had in- 

B B 



structed his people to plant larger quantities of seed, that they 
might have abundance to live wi*ll u|K)n, and feed their pigs and 
poultry well, and to exchange lor English blankets, spades, saws, 
articles of dress, and furniture ; and he estimated the stores of 
kumaras at four thoasand baskets (about one hundred tons), and 
the crops of potatoes and maize were in proportion. 

At sundown a spade was struck with a stone to summon those 
of the tribe who were near, to evening service, and after the 
singing of a hyuin, a chapter in the New Testament was read, 
followed by one or two extempore prayers, in which special 
mention was made of the good fathers on the other side of the 
great sea, who had sent books and instructors ; the ovens were 
then opened and the evening meal despatched, aft;er which a long 
chat over their pipes ensued, the prominent topics being the pro- 
bable arrival of ships and the prospect of selling their timber 
and produce. 

Gradually the numbers became fewer, until, left almost alone 
with the chief, we rolled ourselves in our blankets and fell 

Being . desirous of obtaining specimens of those remarkable 
birds, the Kiwis (Apteryx Australis), inhabiting the mountains at 
the source of the Waima, we arranged with Tawhai for the pur- 
chase of the pair, male and female, which are now in the British 
Museum. Being noble birds, the price demanded was one 
English sovereign in gold for each specimen, as cliiera royalty, 
and remuneration of one dollar for the man ordered to catch 
them. Some weeks afterwards we were aroused while at dinner 
by a loud shout, " The noble birds for the English gentleman— 
the noble birds for the English gentleman;" and presently 
Tawhai appeared, and as he entered the room tumbled out from 
his blanket the two living birds, exclaiming, " There, see, the 
Kiwis." He intimated that the price would thenceforward be 
higher, he having tapued the Kiwis in that range of mountains 
to prevent bloodshed. It appeared that one of these noble buds 


h;id been destroyed and oaten by a slave, and a subordinate 
heathen chief of the district liad thereupon so beaten the man that 
he barely survived; Tawhai therefore, to exalt the "game" 
chiiracter of the birds, had tiipued them,' so that no one in futnre 
would dare to kill a Kitvi without his authority ; this tapu be had 
effected by cutting a few hairs from his head, blowing them 
towards the i no uii tains and pronouncing the words " Be tapu." 

The Kiwi is not larger than a full-grown fowl, and has only u 
rudimentary wing, eo ci>vereil with the body feathers as to be 
quite concealed ; the terminating slender claw may, however, bft 
discerned on eximiiniifion. 

The bill is long and slightly curved, having the nostrils at the 
extremity ; its feathers, tlic sides of which are uniform in structure, 
do not exceed four and a-balf inches in length, and are much 
prized as material fi>r mantles or cloaks by the chiefs. 

The Ki*vi is a nocturnal bird, using its long bill in search of 
worms, upon which it principally feeds ; it kicks with great 
power, and burrows at the root of the rata, at the base of which 
tittc is also found the extraordinary Sphferia Robertsia, a species 
of vegetating caterpiliar. Eetaining the form of the caterpillar, 
the fungus pervades the whole body, and shoots up a small st«m 
alKjve the surface of the ground, the body of the caterpillar being 
below the earth in an erect position. 


Kiwis are caught by a cunning imitatiir of their cry, who, when 
they approach, dazzles and frightens tliem with a light previously 
Concealed, and, tlirowing his blanket over them, thus secures the 

Passing over a range of hills, we entered the equally fertile 
valley of Omanaia, though of somewhat less extent than tlie 
Wairaa; the Chief received us with cordiality, but being tapn, 
the only salute allowed was a kindly word and nod of the head; 
it would have been a high offence to have touched tlie person of 
the Chief, or stepped over the board which separated the tapued 
from the other portion of the fore-court of his hut. 

Our way now lay through low swamps and over gently rising 
ground, terminating in the village and plantations of Pakanai. 
Being the period of kumara harv^est, the place and people en- 
gaged in digging up the food were tapu, according to native 
custom ; but desiring to save time, as evening was drawing near, 
we were injudicious enough to clandestinely venture through the 
fields of Indian corn, and, screened by the foliage, fortunately 
escaped observation, which otherwise might have led to the in- 
fliction of a fine, if no worse loss. 

At night we reposed on the sea-beach, encamping at a favorite 
fishing spot, making a fire with such waifs and strays as were 
procurable, and for shelter scooping holes in the sand, lying in 
which, when encased in blankets, the traveller's mumnby-like body, 
below the level of the beach, is protected from the driving wind. 

In the summer season the amusement of cod fishing in the 
deep sea is carried on with much spirit, parties from the interior 
bringing their canoes round to the sea, and remaining for some 
period on the coast. 

Selecting a sheltered nook near some projecting ledge of rocks, 
and decorating their canoes with feathers and red dye, they launch 
them at the first ebb of the tide at any favorable point, where 
the surf breaks but little ; cautiously approaching the rollers, a 
rest occurs until an unbroken wave is observed, when a shout 


rends the air, and by a vigorous plying of the paddles, the frail 
barks ride over the crest of the shore swell on to the smooth 
ocean beyond. 

Leaving the coast line after some delay in fording a stream, the 
tide being high, a long day's journey brought us at dusk to the 
entrance of a small wood skirting the fertile settlement of Kaihu. 
Our course had been in the morning through a dense forest, the 
intense silence broken only by the rustling and snapping of the 
twigs and branches as they were pushed aside when crossing the 
foot-track which constituted the road, and enlivened by the coo- 
ing of the wood pigeons, and the flutterings of the little fan-tailed 
fly-catchers (piwakawaka), hovering and twitting about our path, 
expanding and closing their beautiful variegated tails, with 
lightning velocity. Later in the day we traversed extensive chalk 
downs, meeting half way a party of armed natives whom we sud- 
denly came upon, resting for refreshment by a small watercourse 
in a hollow, on their journey to convey home the bones of a 
chief, buried near the scene of a battle which had been fought 
many years before. 

Slow and still slower did our pace become as the shades of 

evening prevailed, and night at length set in before we had 

cleared the wood, our progress at last depending upon the natives 

tracing the path by groping with their feet, while hand in hand 

we followed, our only aid being the flickering light of innumerable 


" Whose gems, through the dark, 
A moving radiance twinkled." 

Emerging from the forest we arrived at the Kaihu river, upon 
whose opposite bank the village was built, and although narrow, 
the waters were so deep by reason of the rains that it was unsafe 
to ford the stream on so dark a night; we w^ere therefore directed 
by the friendly natives, who had been attracted by our call, to 
occupy an empty hut near to where we stood, and desired to 
assist ourselves from the food -store close at hand. 



Rising at dawn we forded the river, and were very hospitablj 
received by the chief, Parore, whom we found playing at draughts 
with some of his young men; a piece of bark constituted the 
board, the squares being marked with charcoal and chalk, while 
slices of potato and transverse sections of the pith of the Indian 
com cob formed the men. 

The chief showed us a stack of beautiful wheat which he had 
grown experimentally, and sadly lamented the want of means to 
grind it; the rats are consuming it all said he, and my heart is 
dark for a mill. 

So anxious was Parore to secure intercourse with Europeans 
that he had agreed to dispose of a portion of his rich valley to an 
English gentleman; and as a curiosity the following authentic 
list of the articles which were to have been paid in barter for the 
land is inserted. 

Goods to be paid to Parore for the land of which the boundaries 
are specified in the deed : — 

44 Shirts 

50 Pairs of trowscrs 
60 Gown pieces 
100 Blankets 

2 Casks tobacco 
100 Pairs of braces 
30 Coats 
2 Women's cloaks 
50 Spades 
1 Bonnet 

5 Hats 

1 Hair trunk 

6 White shirts 

1 Pair black trowscrs 

10 Muskets 

10 Fowling pieces 
5 Double-barrelled guns 
I Breaking-down saw, 8 feet 

1 Breaking-down saw, 7 feet 

2 Deal saws 6 feet 

2 Cross-cut saws 

1 Box of nails 

1 Chest of carpenter's tools 

5 Bags of shot, No. 2 

5 Casks of powder 

1 Horse 

2 Boxes of soap 
10 Iron pots 

5 Papers of fish-hooks 
5 Dozen clasp knives 
5 Dozen scizzors 
5 Dozen razors 

2 Shaving boxes with glasses 
20 Felling axes 

10 Adzes 
60 Hatchets 
1 Saddle and bridle 

3 Bags of sugar 

1 Watch-guard and seal 
50 Sovereigns in gold 


The vessel conveying the purchasers was wrecked going into 
the port, and nearly all on board drowned, the sale therefore was 
not completed, but the curious agreement serves as an evidence 
of native capacity to make a bargain. 

A walk of sixteen miles from Kaihu over chalk downs enabled 
us to reach the Wairoa, and on the road we were much amused 
with an account of the exploits and pranks of a horse belonging 
to Parore, which had the free roam of this district. The animal 
would watch the path from the village to the river, and should a 
party be small, of two or three natives, or principally women, he 
would boldly attack them, sometimes with great ferocity, tearing 
from their backs a basket of Indian com if one could be found ; 
but if the convoy appeared too numerous, he would approach, 
neigh, and turning round, gallop off. This equine levying of 
black mail upon those who ventured away from the village 
appeared to throw light upon some of the dragon tales of our 

The boat we had expected to obtain at the Wharau on the 
banks of the Wairoa, having been despatched on a voyage down 
the river could not serve us; learning however that a party of 
natives was encamped seven miles below, bound on an excursion to 
one of their plantations near the point where the Wairoa de- 
bouches into the sea, we hired the only conveyance available, an 
old canoe, and after a boisterous drizzling journey in our crazy 
bark arrived long after dark at the spot w^here Tirarau and a 
detachment of his people were asleep under heaven's starry 
canopy, sheltered from the strong wind by fern fences hastily run 
up for the night. The yelping of a score of mongrel dogs on our 
approach, creating sufficient din to have awakened the seven 
sleepers, aroused the chief, to whom we made known our wants, 
and engaged to be conveyed across the mouth of the estuary and 
up the opposite river. 

The Kaipara district consists of four rivers, the Wai-roa (Long- 
water) running northward, in its windings not less than a hundred 

192 MY h'lliST VOYAGK. 

miles in length; the short streams of the Omawhara and the 
Otamatea, and the Kaipara river running southward about twenty- 
five miles in length. 

These all join before reaching the sea, and empty themselves 
by one mouth seven miles across, and as the spit formed at the 
meeting of the northern and southern rivers extends nearly to the 
sea, and the tide is very strong, a heavy surf rolls on to the tongue 
of sand, and the crossing of this estuary is at times very dan- 
gerous. It is advisable to take the last of the ebb on leaving 
either side, thus avoiding the spit by the drift of the tide seaward 
for the first part of the journey, and when half-way over the 
flood-tide coming in not only prevents too great a drift towards 
the ocean (and there are several ugly sands outside the heads, and 
a heavy swell generally rolling in) but carries the boat or canoe 
up whichever river it is proposed to ascend. 

The Wai-roa runs through an extensive tract of heavily 
timbered land, the most important being the Kauri pine, renaark- 
able for its lightness, elasticity, and tenacity, bearing a much 
heavier strain without breaking than timber of the same species 
from every other country. Its excellence for masts is well known 
in the English dockyards, and for interior house-building purposes 
it cannot be surpassed ; its easy working character, and the absence 
of knots causing it to be highly prized ; broad slabs thirty, forty, 
and fifty feet in length, almost entirely free from knots, being 
procurable. In the interval, between the planting of the seed 
potatoes and harvest, the fellers of timber repair to the forests, 
and choosing a clump of suitable, well-grown trees, each man 
proceeds to hew down his selected trunk. 

The felling is commenced by a huge incision on one side of the 
base of the tree, met by a smaller one on the opposite side, 
gradually the thick stem is nearly severed, and then by a few 
additional hearty strokes, accompanied with loud shouts, the tot- 
tering mass falls with a tremendous crash; some dexterity and 
skill are required that the tree may fall in a proper direction with- 


out injury to itself or the neighbouring timber. Before the 
introduction of European implements the mode of getting trees 
down for the construction of canoes was by burning them through 
at the base, the rest of the operation being slowly accomplished 
by means of stone axes. The fallen trunks are next lined, so as 
to cut out the largest quantity of house-timber, or proportionate 
spars, and it is not a rare occurrence to meet with beautiful 
straight masts, seventy, eighty, ninety, and even one hundred 
feet in length, tapering gently from twenty-six inches square at 
the butt to fifteen inches square at the head, of sound good timber, 
free from knots for fifty feet, and with comparatively few on the 
upper part, after all the branches have been lopped off. The 
squaring is effected by the axe, the adze being used for finishing, 
and it is generally observed that the natives finish their work 
with more care than Europeans, probably owing to the spirit of 
emulation which exists among the young men of the same tribe 
as to who should be considered the best workman. 

By the time the pieces are dressed, agriculture claims the 
attention of the timber-squarers, and the logs are not dragged 
out until winter, at which period of the year the labour is more 
easy,, and food plentiftil. 

Cutting down such small trees as may interfere with the 
launching of the squared pieces of timber into the nearest creek, 
they are placed crosswise, one or two yards apart, to act as skids, 
and are well plastered with mud and made as slippery as possible ; 
hence the winter season, on account of the wet, is chosen for 
dragging out timber from the forest. 

A pair of large blocks and a long strong rope being procured, 
one end is attached by iron dogs and a chain to the piece of 
timber to be drawn out, and the block at the other end being 
fastened to a standing tree, men, women, and children lend a 
willing hand to the work. 

The proprietor, or some friendly substitute gifted with stronger 
lungs, paces up and down on the spar, brandishing his spear or 

c c 


musket and uttermg whaterer bombasttc rant he may imagine 
will cause laughter ending with an exhortation to pall strong 
and then ill straining to the utmost and raising a peculiar con 
tinuouB jell resounding through the forest the spar ghdea on 
over the slimj cross pieces and thus one afler another being 
launched they all at last reach the water and being rafted ten or 
more blether, are floated down to the place of sbipmeut 

The owner of each piece of timber being expected to provide 
a p^ as a feast for helping friends, the work goes on pleasantly, 
and dmber hauling is regarded as a pastime rather thtui a severe 

Hoping eventually to arrive at our destinatiou, as the best 
course for our comfort we resigned ourselves to the friendly ewe 
and easy mode of travelling adopted by our native friends ; any 
attempt to hasten the pace would have been utterly useless aiid 

One day the chiefs boat and the canoes were hauled up and d" 
Airther progress made, because a cockle-bed was arrived at, «iiil 


all hands were employed collecting, . cooking, and eating cockles, 
until thoroughly satiated, a task not soon accomplished; a second 
day was lost after a few miles journey, on account of our meeting 
with a friendly tribe, to chat, eat, and smoke with whom were 
necessary duties of polite life ; a third passed in hunting wild pigs 
and shooting pigeons, the locality being favourable for sport; a 
fourth in borrowing and equipping an extra boat; a fifth was 
wasted from our escort being too late astir for the morning tide, 
and at the time of evening tide we could not have crossed with 

At daybreak we struck our encampment of sails on the beach, 
and with the early gentle sea breeze stood over to the opposite 
shore, where we were received with loud shouta and a war dance 
of welcome. The chief of this district, Mate, was tapu in con- 
sequence of the death of some relatives; as a special mark of 
respect however we were invited into the hut, and after a short 
delay a procession of thirty slaves introduced an ample supply of 
provisions consisting of fish, pork, fresh and dried eels, potatoes, 
and kumaras, served up in neat square baskets of plaited flax 
(phormium tenax). Our reception feast finished, the news on 
both sides were greedily caught up and devoured ; our attendants 
being closely questioned as to the prices Europeans were paying 
for potatoes and timber at the port whence we had started ; also 
the rumoured proceedings of the New Zealand Company, whose 
first ship had then recently arrived. A little merriment was 
caused by one of the company rising to hang his cap upon a 
wooden peg in the side of the hut. Loud cries of " Stop! stop!" 
arrested the act ; it appeared that had he persisted, the article 
would have been confiscated, the place being tapu. This 
timely intervention spared him the loss of his head-gear, and a 
walk of fifty miles without a head-covering was by no means a 
pleasant thought. 

Inquiries were made whether the Bay of Islands Chiefs had not 
offered to sell Kaipara to the New Zealand Company; and Mate 


and Tirarau, the two principal Kaipara chiefsy agreed in the 
statement, that it was true that the Bay natives had conquered 
their fathers when the speakers were children^ but it arose 
solely, they contended, from the circumstance that the conquerors 
possessed guns, and the conquered only native weapons; now, 
said they both, we have guns also, and if they come we will fight 
for the land again. Let them come. 

Delayed by these long talks, the smoking of innumerable pipes, 
and the satis&ctory decision that nothing could be gained hj 
starting before the flood tide, which would not take place for some 
hours, we did not arrive at the head of the Kaipara until night 
had well set in. Near this spot resided some English sawyers, 
whose slumbers we disturbed; a large fire was soon made up 
from the smouldering embers, and a bowl of strong tea brewed, 
of which all, our hosts included, heartily partook. 

These pioneers of civilization had exhausted their stores of 
flour, biscuits, tea and sugar, and all the luxuries of life ; and 
were then living upon the simple fare of potatoes, pork being 
added on the occasion of a success^ wild-pig hunt; thus they 
were waiting in cheerftd hope for the return of their companion, 
who had sailed to a neighbouring colony for the purpose of 
selling their stock of sawn pine, to arrange about a vessel for its 
conveyance, and to procure supplies. 

Our conversation over the cheerful blaze of the wood fire was 
prolonged far into the night by inquiries of home and the changes 
that were taking place in consequence of the introduction of rail- 
ways and steam vessels. 

That we had walked the same streets in the quaint towns of 
Old England, had played as boys around the same venerable 
ruins, and, as it happened, could inform our hosts of the deaths, 
marriages, and altered circumstances of workmen and masters, 
united for the moment our greatly differing minds, even as the 
strains of far-off melodious music soothe and mellow into one the 
many hearts of the multitudinous listeners. 


Breakfasting with our friends on such provender as our joint 
supplies aflforded, we started forward again, our path lying through 
a small forest, and then over a tract of low scrub of very fatiguing 
travelling, our chief amusement during the weary tramp being 
the theological discussion of a native who had joined our party, 
and considered himself quite " up in the Scriptures." He might 
have been cramming for an examination. 

His voluble tongue rolled out chapter after chapter, upon 
each of which he volunteered a long commentary, followed by 
inquisitive interrogatories, whether he was not quite right, and 
did not know a great deal The history of Jonah, as partaking 
of the marvellous, and therefore striking a sympathetic chord 
in the native mind, seemed to have a special interest for him. 

After a long tedious scramble through the fern and tall grass 
which interlaced in every possible direction, entangling the feet 
and making progress dif&cult, at nightfall the roasted portions of 
a wild pig, which had been run down by a dog belonging to one 
of our men, afforded a welcome repast; and making up a good 
fire we encamped for the night in a small sheltered dell. Break- 
fasting upon our pig and the " remainder biscuit," we obtained a 
'boat from some friendly countrymen who were felling timber on 
the opposite bank of the river, and rowed down to the newly- 
fbrmed capital of Auckland. 

Few situations are more interesting and instructive to the 
traTelJer, than to find himself suddenly emerging from the soli- 
tude of the forest into the midst of a swarm of human bees 
settling upon a new hive; — founding the future capital of an 
empire not being an every-day occurrence. 

The sagacious eye of Captain Cook had perceived that, should 
an European settlement be formed in New Zealand, the neigh- 
bourhood of the Thames would be a desirable spot, and although 
manj other places were partially colonized by settlers before the 
Government of Great Britain took possession of the country, the 
site of Auckland was selected by Captain Hobson as the most 


suitable for the capital, and its gradual advance far beyond the 
older settled districts, proves the judicious choice of its founder, 
and the remarkable pre-science of Cook. 

Auckland has a winning aspect from the waters of the Wai-te- 
mata, particularly when the tide is high, for at the period of low 
water a broad fringe of mud imparts a sombre dinginess unknown 
to the more favored magnificent city of Sydney, the belle of the 
South Sea. Auckland, however, has a more refreshing greenness, 
is more quiet and homely, and from its ever pleasant sea breeze 
is an altogether loveable place. 

With questionable taste the appropriate but inelegant names of 
Mechanics, Official, and Commercial Bays were bestowed upon 
the three curved sections into which the shore is naturally in- 
dented; nor were the spaces marked for future streets honored 
with much more classical designations. 

On the low lying shingly shore at the foot of the terrace table 
land on which Auckland stands, trending away upward towards 
an extinct volcano in the rear of the town, the walk to which is 
rendered difficult by the abundant scoria scattered over the sur- 
face of the soil, were the temporary houses of the natives who 
had brought from the villages on the Thames, fire-wood, potatoes, 
pigs, poultry, and maize, thus early and eagerly gratifying their 
trading propensities, and profiting largely by this suddenly opened 

Canoes hauled up on the beach, their sails turned over poles 
for shelter, smoking earth ovens, hungry curs, half-naked children, 
squalling pigs and piles of produce, the gipsy like and indepen- 
dent aspect and manners of the erect full tatooed men, with the 
continual arrivals and departures of some of the " Musquito" 
fleet, each canoe urged on by numerous vigorous rowers, paddling 
to a chant not devoid of melody, gave a peculiar life and interest 
to the scene. 

Ascending to the plateau, our enterprising countrymen were to 
be seen with all the earnestness and decision of the national 


character busily employed erecting fences, staking out ground, 
building rush huts and more substantial wattle and dab and 
weather-boarded houses. A long hut with curious narrow ano- 
malous enlargements and elongations of no particular style of 
architecture formed an impromptu and expansible hotel, an 
additional bit being added as new sleeping occupants required 
acconmiodation and labor could be obtained, and herein " new 
chums'* slept soundly, rolled in blankets, on boxes or tresties, in 
the glorious possession of health and hope ; now and then when 
the intruding rain required tiie midnight use of an umbrella, their 
sleepy patience venting itself in a few expressive monosyllables. 

The toiling Tjrians on each other call 

To ply their labor : some extend the wall; 

Some build the citadel; the brawny throng, 

Or dig or push unwieldy stones along. 

Some for their dwelling choose a spot of ground 

Which, first designed, with ditches they surround; 

Some laws ordain; and some attend the choice 

Of holy senates and elect by voice. 

Such is their toil and such their busy pains. 

A small company of English soldiers accompanied the Governor, 
and on the occasion of their first inspection and review, great was 
the astonishment of the native spectators, and when the thrown 
out skirmishers lay down, the native lookers on, not understanding 
the movement, and believing the men to be resting, exclaimed, 
Oh! see, they are tired. How regular they move, at a word, 
said others, as the Red Jackets vdth tiieir accustomed precision, 
wheeled right and left, marched slow, quick, and double quick. 

The "charge" was regarded as the crowning achievement, 
and although considered unavailable for the bush, was at once 
admitted to be an irresistible movement in the open country. 

The indefatigable ubiquitous Governor, accessible to all, watched 
with a father's interest the rising of his newly founded capital ; 
alas, good man, worn out with anxious cares for the infant colony, 
his health broke down, and he was withdrawn from all earthly 
sorrows and joys. 




Not soon will the natives or his countrymen forget the kindly, 
genial spirit of the First Governor, nor often is a dead official 
mourned with half the true sorrow that followed Captain Hobson 
to the grave, over which might be appropriately inscribed 

** Reader, if 70a seek a monument, look aroond." 


New Zealand — The Treaty. 

I am sent bj the Queen of Eogland whose words are tme, and with the 
tenns of our agreement this day she will make all future GOTernora comply. 
Caftaim UoueoN. 

The English cotony of New Zealanil, of which Auckland is 
the capital, was founded by Captain Hobson in pursuance of 
iDBtnictione from the English Government; to remedy an iacon- 
Tenient state of society which had arisen in those distant islands; 
and to the proper understanding of the necessity of this course a 
few historical noMa may be desirable. 

New Zealand was discovered by die Dutch Navigator, Taaman, 


but nearly all the evidence we have of his visit is in the name he 
gave to the country, and which it still retains. To Captain Ck>ok 
belongs the honor of ascertaining the extent of the islands, the 
character of the inhabitants and productions ; and his visits are 
recollected with gratitude by all. It is extremely pleasing to 
hear the old men talk of Peni Kuki (Captain Cook) whom their 
fathers knew, and who came in the thing they imagined at first 
to be a gigantic bird flying on the sea, the sails being thought 
to be its suitably vast wings. 

To Captain Cook they attribute the introduction of pigs, 
potatoes, dogs, the cabbage, and the knowledge of the use of iron 
instruments; and throughout the land his name is mentioned 
with affectionate remembrance as its greatest benefactor, as one 
who was ever kind to the natives, and took no advantage of their 
ignorance and helplessness against his firearms. 

In afler years, whaling vessels frequenting the Pacific began to 
call at New Zealand in order to obtain fresh water and replenish 
their provisions; pigs, potatoes, (fee. being abundant and cheap; 
and the well sheltered harbor of the Bay of Islands being very 
easy of access, became the favorite place of resort, until at last 
two hundred vessels have been known to visit the port in one 

As the islands became better known, the merchants of New 
South Wales established shore whaling stations in the neighbour- 
hood of Cook's Straits, and in those bays on the East coast to 
which whales were observed to resort. 

Many free emigrants from the neighbouring colonies settled in 
various parts of the islands, runaway seamen and a few escaped 
convicts also added to the European population ; and subsequently 
the New Zealand Company proposed to establish a settlement in 
the country under its own peculiar regulations. 

Under these circumstances, no supreme controlling power 
residing in any competent authority, the British Grovemment 
resolved in 1839 upon forming the islands into a crown colony, 


but as the independency of the islands had been acknowledged 
some years before, and the sovereignty of the chiefs proclaimed j 
it became necessary to secure the abrogation, cancelling, or 
cession of their sovereign rights ; — to eflfect which arrangement. 
Captain Hobson of the Royal Navy, who had previously visited 
the islands, was instructed to assemble the chiefs and obtain 
their signatures to a treaty, embracing this point amongst other 

This agreement between the British Government and the New 
Zealanders, known as the Waitangi Treaty, had been first dis- 
cussed at the Bay of Islands, the chiefs of which district were 
much averse to its reception, but the Hokianga chiefs who 
arrived late on the day of meeting having expressed themselves 
very decidedly in its favor, their persuasion induced a change in 
the minds of the Bay chiefs, and after some hesitation they 

In his despatch to the British Government reporting the 
acceptance of the treaty, the governor stated, " Twenty or thirty 
chiefs addressed the meeting, five or six of whom opposed me 
with great violence, and at one period with such effect and so 
cleverly that I began to apprehend an unfavorable impression 
would be produced. At this crisis, the Hokianga chiefs under 
Nene and Patuoui made their appearance, and nothing could 
have been more seasonable. At the first pause Nene came for- 
ward and spoke with a degree of natural eloquence that surprised 
all the Europeans, and evidently turned aside the temporary 
feeling that had been created." 

The next meeting was held at Mangungu, the principal Wes- 
leyan Mission station on the Hokianga river, and to it were 
invited the very important Ngapuhi tribes inhabiting the western 
districts of the northern parts of the island. 

On his way across the island the governor halted at the 
Waimate where several farms had been established by the 
Church Missionaries, and at these the natives first became 


acquainted with systematic agricultural operations on a large 
scale, which thej have since so successfullj imitated. 

Leaving this English-looking village of farm yards, gardens, 
substantial houses and stables, cow-sheds, sheep-folds, and pig- 
geries, a journey of fifteen miles through a broken country of 
scoria, fern, scrub, and timber land brought the party to the 
banks of the Waihou, a tributary stream of the Hokianga, where 
the principal Europeans resident in the neighbourhood were 
assembled. This unexpected reception by so many of his country- 
men who had voluntarily met to countenance, encourage and 
give 6clllt to the visit of the Governor, gave occasion for some 
graceful thanks and observations on his part. 

By arrangement he had expected the Mission boat, and that 
only, whereas he was honored and gratified with the presence of 
twelve or more well manned boats, gaily decked out with flags of 
all kinds, union jacks, ensigns, and signals, bidding him, a sailor 

governor welcome. 

The water escort was headed by a boat containing the Gover- 
nor's state ; next succeeded the large Mission boat vrith the 
Governor, flanked on either side by a four oared cutter, and 
following in order were the remaining boats in single line. In 
this nook of the world such an aquatic procession was as unique 
as it was novel, and necessarily the first and last of its kind. 

The curiosity of the natives increased as we rowed in to the 
landing place, numbers wading into the water to draw the Gover- 
nor's boat up on to the beach, and as he disembarked and shook 
hands with the chiefs, free criticisms on his appearance and dress 
passed round. '* The Queen has sent such a little man to be a 
great chief, and his clothes are quite plain.*' 

That day had also witnessed the arrival of many important 
chiefs with their immediate subordinates and influential men, 
and as canoe af^er canoe touched the shore, the numerous short 
war dances, equivalent to salutes among European nations, kept 
the appointed place of meeting in constant excitement, friencDj 



tribe greetmg fiiendlj tribe, each trying to outvie the others in 
hospitality and courtesy. 

The morning of the assembly day dawned, solemn, quiet, 
breathless, and as the sun increased in strength the dewy mists 
floating over the valleys, 

^ Sparkled, were exhaled and went to heaven:" 

uncurtaining the branching river and revealing its numerous 
streamlets coursing their winding paths among romantic hiUs, 
through richly wooded lands and cultivated grounds, edging 
small villages and fortified pahs. 

At ten o'clock the loud pealing of the Mission Chapel bell 
announced that the hour of meeting had arrived, and the sound 
had scarcely died away when the Governor, surrounded by a 
small group of officials, took his seat in the verandah of the 
Mission House which crowned the brow of the hill. 

His address was to the effect that, in former years the English 
government had recognized the independence of the country, had 
acknowledged the flag of New Zealand, and hoped that under the 
guidance of the British Resident the chiefs would have been 
enabled to rule the country. Two causes had led to a chai^ 
in those views. First — ^The mutual jealousy of the chiefe which 
opposed the combined action of all or many chie&, and still more 
prevented any one chief from becoming possessed of more than 
very local and feeble authority. Second — The unexpectedly 
large and increasing influx of Europeans, over whom the chieft 
dared not assume authority, and these, sometimes rightly, fre- 
quently with much unfairness, complained of the conduct of 
the natives, who on the other hand were often wronged by the 
white men; thus evils went unredressed, and the country was 
daily in danger of a collision between the parties. 

The advantages he held out were twofold — Security to their 
lands, property, and fLsheries; and redress in case of wrong 
from Europeans. 


To secure these benefits it was necessary that the native chiefs 
should cede their sovereignty to the Queen of England that she 
might be paramount. He remarked that he had assembled them 
before the Sim in the heavens, and all together, and in the pre- 
sence of the missionaries, his white coimtrymen, and all the 
natives who chose to come, that the matter might be openly 
talked over and not done in a comer and in the dark ; he had 
not made presents, nor had he privately discussed the subject 
with individual chiefs in order to persuade them ; he would read 
the treaty, and then they were to talk it over and question him as 
much as they pleassd. 


Article the First. — The chiefs of the confederation of the 
imited tribes of New Zealand, and the separate and independ^t 
chiefs who have not become members of the confederation, cede 
to Her Majesty the Queen of England, absolutely, and without 
reservation, all the rights and powers of sovereignty which the 
said confederation or independent chiefs respectively exercise (ff 
possess, or may be supposed to exercise or to possess, over their 
respective territories, as the sole sovereigns thereof. 

Article the Second. — Her Majesty the Queen of England coo- 
firms and guarantees to the chiefs and tribes of New Zealani 
and to the respective families and individuals thereof, the ftll, 
exclusive, and undisturbed possession of their lands and estatttj 
forests, fisheries, and other properties which they may coDw-, 
tively or individually possess, so long as it is their wish ial| 
desire to retain the same in their possession. But the chiefi of tk i 
united tribes, and the individual chiefs, yield to Her Majesty^ 
exclusive right of pre-emption over such lands as the proprkt* 
thereof may be disposed to alienate, at such prices as mxj ^\ 
agreed upon between the respective proprietors and pen*! 
appointed by Her Majesty to treat with them in that behalf. 


Article the Third. — In consideration thereof, Her Majesty the 
Queen of England extends to the natives of New Zealand Her 
royal protection, and imparts to them all the rights and privileges 
of British subjects. (Signed) W. HoBSON. 

Now therefore, we, the chiefs of the confederation of the united 
tribes of New Zealand, being assembled in congress at Waitangi, 
and we, the separate and independent chiefs of New Zealand, 
claiming authority over the tribes and territories which are 
specified after our respective names, having been made fuUy to 
understand the provisions of the foregoing treaty, accept and 
enter into the same in the full spirit and meaning thereo£ 

In witness whereof, we have attached our signatures or marks 
at the places and dates respectively specified. 

Done at Waitangi, this 6th day of February, in the year of 
our Lord 1840. 

" This is the word of the Queen," said the Governor. 

i. After a pause the Raumati (The Summer) rose and spoke. 

, ^' I am an old man, war was once my delight, now my thoughts 
are for peace. The white men have brought us many evil things, 
as the stinking waters, guns, and some diseases, these are bad ; 
but they have also brought the potato and the pig, and the flour, 
and the blanket and medicine ; the young and the very old could 
not eat the fern, it was a lump in the stomach and they died, but 
now they can have suitable, soft, food* The Missionaries have 
taught us to read, and told us about Heaven and God, and to sit 
in peace and not devise perpetual wars, therefore I think we 
should walk still further in white ways and adopt the Queen's 
word ; the more so when I look around and see that some of the 
"white people who are here are bad men and require ruling, and 
we native chiefs are afraid to punish them when they do wrong 
because they threaten that the warships shall come and fire upon 
US. I counsel that we sign the Treaty and become brothers 

208 MT rmsT yotaqe. 

the white people, that there may be one rule for all, one judge 
superior to all who will render right to Natives and Europeans. 

A tall noble wild looking chief, dressed in a large kaitaka or 
flax mat with variously dyed border worked into an elaborate 
pattern, his hair stuck full of feathers, next stept forth and 
directed the attention of the assembled throng to the neighbouring 
hills. Look, said he, are they not all nearly of tiie same height, 
so are the chiefs in our land, one is nearly as great as the others, 
the differences are small, but now you, the Governor, come and 
ask to be lifted up above us all, like the mountain of Taniwha; 
that is not our usage ; and I say let us be as we are, and if in 
your country you prefer one chief to swallow up the greatness of 
aU, be it so, white customs for white meuj native customs for 
New Zealanders. That is my thqught. 

This is what I have to say, said another, if you English will 
accept a New Zealander to be your king, then will we make you 
a head chief over all here. If I were to go in your big ship 
would they make me a king in England, why then should we 
make you Gk)vemor here. 

Rangatira wished to enquire whether if they became politicaUj 
one and submitted to English law it was to be considered part of 
the agreement that they were to become Christians, he should 
not accept the Treaty if that were the case, for he had no wish to 
become a Christian. 

Up started Te Ngaro (The Lost), a short stout built man of 
great muscular power, his full tatooed decided face peering 
above the dogskin mat which hung fastened round his throat 
by a huge button and loop, completely hiding the thick blanket 
which formed his only other garment. During his speech hi 
abundant energy employed itself in rapid pacings backward 
and forward, whilst his hands played restlessly with a war 

You have said that there shall be a straight rule betweei 
natives and Europeans, now listen to me and judge. On * 


portion of my land not far from this place I planted potatoes and 
kumaras for myself and the children of my tribe — ^good; and 
around the plantation I made a fence so that pigs could not get 
through — ^good ; but some of the white people havp great animals 
with long horns, and one day one of these beasts came and first 
poked one horn between the stakes and then the other horn, and 
pushed his head about so that the fence broke, and he got in to 
the plantation, eating and destroying the food of my people. I 
raised a great shout, but instead of his going away the Tommy 
Bull ran after me with his great horns ; — ^I thought, perhaps he 
will be afraid of a gun, so I loaded and fired, and hit him so well 
that he died. Then the owner came and demanded and obtained 
recompense for my having destroyed his animal; now I say that 
for me to be obliged to pay in such a case is not right, and if 
such is the custom in your country it is bad. I suiFered wrong, 
and killed the bull when I only intended to drive him away ; I 
could not keep him from the growing food, nor was it the first 
time he had caused me great loss. 

A Waihou chief here corroborated Ngaro's statement, saying 
that his crop had also been greatly damaged three years in suc- 
cession by a white man's great oxen, and that when he had 
remonstrated, the Englishman had treated him with contempt, 
and when the chief told him he should be obliged to shoot the 
one which was most malicious and led the way, unless it was 
restrained, the reply was curtly, " You shoot him, I shoot 

It was suggested that the fences should be made stronger. 

No, no, said Ngaro (and no, no, not upright, resounded on all 
sides), we keep pigs and make our fences accordingly, if we do 
not make them strong enough to keep pigs out we must be liable 
to lose our crops ; but the right thing in my mind is, that those 
who have the big horned animals should prevent their breaking 
our fences. 

In future, said the governor, should one of these animals break 

E E 


into your groxuid and damage be done, you will have a claim for 

Very good, right judgment, said they all. 

The Taunni next rose with the air, cunning, grace, and apolo- 
getic manner of a courtier, deferentially submitting his remarks. 

" We are children in mind though old in years, said he, we 
fought in our youth and eat fern root, and laboriously our wives 
and slaves made garments of flax, and by the slow process of 
burning we hollowed out trees and made canoes which we 
finished with stone axes ; now our young men can square timber, 
and use saws and planes, and build houses, and write and do the 
figures almost as well as Englishmen, and the white people 
supply us with tobacco, spades, blankets, calico, and many other 
things. They do not give these things to us ; they expect our 
labor, our timber, and our potatoes in exchange, so I strongly 
suspect that you, the Governor, do not give us good words ; it is 
not straight to think so, and yet it may be straight perhaps, but 
in my heart I think that you receive payment for all your fine 
and kind words. When we were very savage, like wild beasts, 
the Queen of England sent the missionaries ; they tamed us, and 
it became safe for sailors and merchants to come to our country. 
The missionaries professed that they came for our good — ^perhaps 
it was that they were paid, how much I do not know for they 
never told me, I will suppose £200 a year; a long time after 
came the British Resident, superior to- the missionaries, to him 
probably the Queen of England gave £500'^a year. 

And now when we are accustomed to European ways, and live 
nearly as you do, and the British Resident thought he had suf- 
ficiently prepared us, now, I say, another person comes, still higher 
in rank, you come with persuasive words, all for our good yon 
say, but what I wish my countrymen to ponder over is that yon 
do not come here merely of your own will, but I surmise all your 
words are influenced by the gold money you receive from the 
Queen, probably £1,000 a year, and when we have listened to 


your talk and acquiesced, perchance she may give you some other 
appointment and you will not then care so much for our good as 
for the larger money, and will leave us ; or when we have been 
agreed for some time, perchance some new superior governor 
with new suggestions and rules may come, because he may be 
better paid ; — it is a matter of payment with you all. 

This occasioned some merriment, and the Governor good 
humoredly observed that it was true he was paid, and he thanked 
Her Majesty for his salary and should not have the slightest 
objection were it to be increased as his friend Taunui hinted, but, 
however that might be, it was also true that the agreement made 
that day would be for ever binding. 

The Tawhai a renowned warrior whose name was a terror to 
his enemies, and who was in himself a host to the side he sup- 
ported, his person bearing the marks of severe wounds received 
in fight, spoke with ease, dignity, and spirit, and was listened to 
with profound attention, amidst subdued hushing "Ko Mohi 
Tawhai ; " Moses, The Teazer, speaks. 

" The white people are as sand flies, which when they bite 
before rain one is tempted to rub off the leg and kill, but no 
sooner is this done than a fresh swarm alights and replaces the 
killed insects, if therefore we were to destroy all the Eiiropeans 
now in our country, a very easy matter, more would come, there- 
fore I incline to say, let us live in peace with those who are here 
and whom' we know, perhaps worse might follow. I fear that 
what has occurred in neighbouring countries may in time be the 
case here, in Van Dieman's Land all the natives have been 
hunted doAvn like wild beasts, in New Holland the English have 
said, get out of the way you dogs of natives, and have driven 
them far away from the coasts and the fisheries and taken their 
land ; perhaps in other places of which I know nothing it may 
have been the same. But the Governor tells us that in those 
countries no agreements to the contrary were ever made, and 
that in this matter we are treated differently, and oTir friends the 


Missionaries say that on their words as truth tellers we may 
believe what the Governor asserts, our lands will not be taken, 
our rights and customs will remain as they are. 

" We all know how difficult it is if an European injures a native 
to get the wrong righted, and if a native injures an European 
how large is the demand for satisfaction ; and great and many are 
the threats that if restitution be not speedily rendered the war- 
ships from the other side of the great sea will come and destroy 
our pahs. Moreover, we have lately seen a number of armed 
Englishmen break open another Englishman's dock and steal 
therefrom forty logs of timber, and there is no one with authority 
to say what is the right in such case, no judge to punish ; and we 
are told it is not for us chiefs to judge and interfere; that it is a 
white man's quarrel ; and so great wrong is done, and all is con- 
fusion in the land. Native quarrels also arise from little matters, 
and great agitation and much bloodshed result ; from some small 
pique the high spirit of a chief is wounded, and he sends a mes- 
sage that at an unknown hour he will be revenged, and will cook 
and eat the offender's head ; and for a long period we repose with 
our guns by our side, restlessly sleeping; others keeping watch 
lest the enemy should surprise us. If we acquiesce in this 
writing there will be a friendly neutral chief, greater than all, 
who will settle these differences and make peace. Considering 
all these matters, I counsel acquiescence, but not unless one thing 
more is promised: we have been free — ever free; have always 
walked straight up, and we will never consent that slaves, bad 
men, convicts you «all them, should ever tread our ground. 

Governor: They never shall. 

" Remember the words you have said this day, and if you 
infringe the agreement, recollect you believe in a hell-fire after 
death for all liars. Further, I advise my countrymen not to sell 
their land, but to keep it, that our children may have food for 
ever and ever. We in this district have sold all we can spare, 
and more than we ought ; if we sell more we shall have to live 


like dogs that run hither and thither, and exist upon any scraps 
that may be thrown to them. I have said. 

The son of Papahia complained that some of the Missionaries 
had bought too much of the land ; as he figuratively expressed it, 
from the place where they stood to the end of the island, all 
round by the sun, and back again ; and paid far too Httle, having 
bought it when the natives were ignorant of its value, and who, 
having once parted with it, could not sell it again; and he con- 
sidered the original proprietors had been defrauded in the price. 

It was explained that the district referred to had been tapued 
to the Church Missionaries, in order to prevent the natives being 
coaxed into an actual sale of the lands necessary for their support. 

The Governor, as this explanation did not seem quite satis- 
factory to the young chief, assured him that all cases of land 
sales would be investigated ; and where a fair price had not been 
paid to the natives, the land should be restored, whoever had 
purchased it, whether Missionaries or other persons. 

By a small payment a sort of pre-emption was established, 
the party tapuing secured that the land should not be sold to any 
one but himself, but it did not compel a sale even to him. 

Nene, with great energy of manner, and in a torrent of fiery 
oratory, denounced the conduct of a French gentleman who liad 
given him deep and lasting offence in reference to some land. 
Why does he not appear here, said the chief, in concluding his 
address, and state his case, and let me tell mine, and you judge 
between us. No, no, he dares not come ; his face would be too 
red with shame, for he knows he is in the wrong; and the chiefs 
eyes glistened, and his whole soul beamed through his quivering 
frame as he thundered out his final sentence that the wrong should 
never be right to him. Never ! never ! never ! 

The assembly was silent, awed by the grand natural eloquence 
which distinguished Nene; his clear statements, powerful, logical 
arguments, biting sarcasm, and fierce denunciation, awakening 
the remembrance of old times, when the voice of the renowned 


warrior aroused them to battle, in which under his leadership 
they were ever successful. 

The day was fast waning when the Governor replied to the 
speakers, and observed, in conclusion, that if they were satisfied 
with his statements he would leave it to them to decide whether 
to sign or decline the treaty on that occasion, or adjourn the 
meeting until the next day. 

Several influential chiefs suggested that the contract should be 
completed at once, and in a body they rose as the sun descended 
below the hills, and attached their marks and signatures to the 

It had been noticed in the morning that Papahia, one of the 
most powerful of the northern chiefs, his adherents mustering a 
thousand fighting men, was not present at the meeting, but 
remained at the hut of a friendly chief whose hospitality he had 
accepted. The characteristic reply of the proud old man to the 
messenger sent by tlie Governor, inviting his attendance was, 
" I am here, if he wishes to see me let him come." 

The dignity of the Governor would have been compromised 
by any further concession, and the meeting proceeded and 

In the evening, while we were partaking coffee, a yoting chief 
was announced with a message that Papahia had a communication 
to make to the Queen's representative. 

The Governor replied that he should be very happy to see 
him ; and soon after, Papahia himself arrived, and was immediatelj 
introduced with his sons and the leading men of his tribe. 

It is not right in a great chief, said he, to decide important 
questions in haste; it may be weU for young men and small tribes 
but not for old men and large tribes ; it is not for an old man to 
talk but to think ; moreover, I said in my heart, let the Christiafl 
natives, the changeable men, the men who have left the custontf 
of their fathers, sign first. I have, however, considered the matter 
of the Treaty, and now listen, — Behold my sons and the princi]«J 



men of my tribe, 1 have brought them to witness my words and 
to join with me. 

Your words, O Governor from the Qneen of England, I accept 
as true, as the words of one great chief to another. You have 
said that our lands, our fisheries, all our properties shall \Hi pre- 
served to us, and be oTirs as they are at this day ; the; mc»n you 
have treated so badly in New Holland, and driven from their 
lands and fisheries, are nearly black like this (rubljing tlie nUnivn 
of his black coat) ; now (placing his finger on his cheek) \(H>k at 
our skins and look at your own, there is not much difien^nce in 
colour, we are nearly as white as yourselves. 

You promise not to use the power of your guni and war-slii^m 
to do the same to us as to the New Hollanders; if herendcr y<m 
break your word — ^if you do, the God you white men worghip 
punish you as liars. If I understand you plainly, said ha^ in 
future it will not be, showing hi« left liarid, — Nativi;*,— th<;n 
showing hia right hand,— White men — ^but, placing tlii; fingem <^ 
either hand between those of the other, all will be one mm theMtSf-^ 
brothers— «iid one law ioT alL 

Just 90, said the Goremor. 

Let me touch the writing then; and having nuid« hi « ntffn^ n//w, 
said he, Papahia ha^-ing UAif:hfA the j/ap^r, Uti it U; ^iit',r*it\^ tuA 

peace be between us; we are one for ev<^r— <^v<rr-— <?y<;r, 

« « # « « 

The following day the Gov<iTTAor <5tJ^;brat/^l tl**; «i;^rji/*g *4 Um} 
Treaty by a feast to the iUi^^nhUA trif^^. 

The cerenKmy op^Ti^ iritii a irar-^ia;x<;^; fjtt a V/w h^)h>^]y 
beach fringing the feouth '♦^/ajjk *A th't nv^^r^ ynhif^h h^-jit ir^Ayj Ju 
pensive course l>i^w*3ej:i two cij^a;;,^ */i' i*A'\j /;JJJ* *:f</MVi}^A ir;.tjj 
noble pines. 

On a partial^T clwtrtjd ryir 'A *kj^, *A i}^^'*^, r^-uy*^ ^jjfA ti?^ 
dwelling of the lJffy*j^y hr;xU}j It^vi'v/t, nito >.t4>o *5;4'>atrvv/i;^ 
to heighten it% eE^^.-l. acud izi^yjrMiZjfA-. vv 4i ':r4f^j^ry 'A *::^n'/Xik^i^^ 
which brift^ <* u»»r wr^'w^r. 



Salutes on feBtive occasions, fired by an old naval retainer, 
wakened tte oft repeating echoes of the smroimding mountains, 
and dying away fainter and fainter, the reverberations, roused 
by the booming of the evening gun at aiuidown, atruok the 
ear aa solemn watchwords of the spirit sentries of the everlasting 

On the oppoa e b nk and fen e ncl r ng a lai^ field of 
bee-hive 1 llocke 1 ke n ynada of moJeh lis (the nat ve mode of 
cultivatio ) betokened a kumara and potato plantat on while 
golden ma ze n ill ts gl j and a grove of luxur ant peach 
trees in fiill bearing stro glj c ntrasted witJi the masses of dark 
forest wh ch bordered tl e s nail settlement and seemed to frame 
the picture 

By des re of the pnn pal ch fs the Eu opean spectators 
embarked m bt a a d ca oes and r sted on the r oars or anchor i! 
at a short distance from the shore, tbis position affording the best 
view of the proceedings. 

At a given signal from the leading warriors the whole body of 



men began a series of wild and furious cries and shrieks, with 
hideous contortions and leaps into the air, accompanied with the 
brandishing and rattling of weapons and the firing of musketry, 
combining everything a savage imagination could conceive as 
likely to inspire terror in an enemy. 

The surprising exactness with which during nearly half an 
hour every motion of such numbers was performed, and the 
peculiar resounding of the earth as so many hundreds descended 
fix)m their upspring height, left an impression on the mind time 
<;annot obliterate. 

This strange performance over, two chiefs undertook the dis- 
tribution of the provisions, and woe to the unlucky representative 
of any tribe who sought to obtain more than the assigned portion, 
a stout blow on the head, or vigorous poke in the back speedily 
caused him to repent and desist. 

The cooking was effected in ovens formed by scraping a hole in 
the earth about three feet in diameter and twelve inches deep. A 
wood fire is first made in the excavation, and stones heated by 
means of the burning wood ; when thoroughly hot, the wood is 
all withdrawn that no smoke may affect the food, and the stones 
are distributed over the bottom of the hole; upon the stones 
.damped grass or fern is placed, and then potatoes surmoimted by 
the meat; this again is covered with fern upon wliich water is 
poured ; a few stones are added, and the whole rendered air-tight 
by a covering of two or three flax mats and a thin layer of earth. 
As the water poured upon the fern leaves percolates through the 
mass it is converted into steam by contact with the hot stones, and 
thus the apparatus may be considered a steam oven. 

The viands being ascertained to be properly cooked, the earth 
^nd mats are removed, and the clean steamed provisions served up 
in neatly plaited baskets of fresh flax leaves. 

The cooking of twenty-five large pigs and nine or ten tons of 
potatoes required a goodly number of these ovens, and great was 
the clamour of the cooks. 

F F 



While watching the motley group, the author inquired of his 
old friend the influential chief Patuoni why he had become so 
interested in favour of Captain Hobson. 

He replied, that some years before being on a visit to a related 
tribe, distant several days' journey from his own people, and the 
vessel of war which the Governor then commanded lying in the 
harbour, on the point of sailing to a port near to his own tribe, 
his young attendants intimated to the captain their desire that the 
aged and beloved chief might be conveyed in the vessel and thxis 
spared the fatigue of many days' walk. The kind-hearted captain 
not only acceded lo the request, but took the whole party on 
board ; appropriated to Patuonrs use a cabin next his own, and 
insisted upon the chief sitting at the captain's table and partaking 
of his provisions. 

He was kind and considerate to me, said Patuoni, and on the 
voyage treated me as a gentleman — ^as his equal. Many moons 
had been bom and died, and then I heard that the good captain 
was returning with a writing from the Queen of England to the 
chiefs of my country, and my heart said. Up, Patuoni, assemble 
your native friends, be their numbers large, let their feet be 
nimble, and their words strong on behalf of your English friend. 

We went to the meeting at the Bay of Islands, many in number, 
and with our tongues large to persuasion. The chiefs of that 
district opposed the new Governor at first, and were haughty and 
perverse; saying. We will not submit to an English Governor; let 
him go back oversea whence he came; but after listening to our 
words their thoughts changed ; they said. Our friends Patuoni 
and his brother Nene, with other Hokianga chiefs wish us, we 
therefore will say Yes ; we will do what the great Queen on the 
other side of the sea desires ; our hands shall touch her writing; 
she shall be our mother, and we will be her children. 

It was little imagined at the time either by the Europeans 
present or in England that the ruling spirit in this transaction 
was actuated by a feeling of gratitude for a kindness received 


years before; and that this country owes the peaceful ccHHion of 
a large and beautiful colony to the courteous conduct of a naval 


* * * • # 

The flSte was closed by the whole party simultancouHly return- 
ing to their temporary huts on a point of land about a mile din- 
tant from the scene of the feast. 

Scattered over the river were more than sixty cMUH'Hf puddling 
vigorously to the time beaten by one or two skilful men, selects h1 
by each company for that purpose. 

The animation became more and more inUinmi nn loudt^r and 
louder on the eax surged the chorus of voicAmj anNwcring t/O the 
exhcMiations of the time beaters, " Ii<i «tn>rjg, he strong;" ** Let 
your eyes be red;" whenever one large double-barikcsd cario*; with 
twenty or thirty paddles on eacli si^le gairu^ up^m or imnmui 
another; and as stroke by stroke they conUsuth^l ior tlie htnumr 
of the first place in the race. 



Like foam on the crest of the billow. 
Which sparkles and Bbdnks rrom the sight; 
Like the leaf on the wind-shaken willoir. 
Though trsnsientlj, beanteously bright. 
Like dew-drops exhaled aa they glisten, 
Like perfnine which dies soon aa shed, 
Like melody bashed while we listen, 
U memory's dream of the dead- 

The remembrance of great men excites to greatness; and this 
faculty constitutes one of the main differences between man and 
the brutes, for in them the idea of heroism docs not exist. 

The memories of the persons and achievements of the illus- 


trious dead have been preserved in the minds of their country- 
men by means of monuments, statues, poems, public funerals, 
and periodically recurring celebrations; and all nations have 
endeavoured by these means to sow the seeds of future noble 
actions; and of such commemorations none more curious than 
the Hahunga, or feast of bones, a death ceremony observed amongst 
the New Zealanders. 

Upon the demise of a chief, the corpse is placed in some retired 
spot, generally in a tree, until the flesh has rotted from the bones, 
and the interior portions of the head, which has been previously 
severed from the body, being removed, the outer skin is dried 
upon its framework of bones, thus retaining the living form. 

The Hahunga takes place after the harvest of the extra seed 
food planted for the purpose, consisting of kumaras, potatoes, and 
maize; additional quantities of dried fish being also prepared. 
At the appointed moon friendly tribes are invited to attend and 
celebrate the feast of the dead, before the interment of the bones 
in their final resting place, frequently a picturesque spot bjf the 
banks of some rivulet, to which the deceased resorted for fishing, 
or a favourite dell wherein he was accustomed to ensnare birds. 

The cofi^ or box stained with gaudy dyes, and elevated upon 
a platform, forms the depository of the remains; his axe, war- 
weapons, and favourite articles of apparel and ornament being 
buried with him; whilst his canoe, divided asunder, and the 
portions reared up at either end of the coffin, with such other 
adornments as native skill in wood carving may render available, 
produce an impressive funeral monument, increased in its solem- 
nity by the suggestive melancholy of the feather-like foliage of 
the drooping rimu, and the graceftd curves of the tree fern, inten- 
sified by the solitude of the surrounding forest. 

Previous to the meeting, the priestess, or witch of the tribe 
scrapes the bones clean with a shell; and the following ceremonies 
observed at the hahtmga of Moki may be taken as a type of 
those generally observed. 


Mold, a tall, athletic man, a very model for a sculptor's Her- 
cules, but with all his wild maimer and eccentricities a truth- 
telling, hospitable fellow, had lost the best beloved one of his six 
wives by death. The childish heart of the powerful decided 
man dictated that he should die too and rejoin her; so loading 
his musket and retiring into a neighbouring grove he was sub- 
sequently found shot through the heart, having pulled the trigger 
with his foot. 

Being a great chief, and having died a heathen, the tribe 
resolved to celebrate his decease by the customary native rites; 
and a few favoured Europeans who knew him well and by whom 
he was much respected, were invited to attend. 

It was late in the afternoon of the first day of the hahunga 
when our party arrived at the village, embowered in a rich valley 
through which ran a beautiful crystal stream, now murmuring 
and rippling its way over the boulders, and now slowly gliding in 
sleepy gentle curves, imtil it joined the large river of which it 
was a tributary. 

Without delay we had presented to us the best provisions our 
hosts could afford; Indian com roasted in a frying-pan, then 
boiled with water, and sweetened with sugar, formed a good sub- 
stitute for coffee ; kumaras, pumpkins, potatoes and pork, steamed 
in native ovens, were spread out in abundance, and large delicious 
water melons concluded our repast. 

During our evening meal some observations were made upon 
the advantages the New Zealanders had derived from their com- 
merce with Europeans ; and with the self-complacency of English- 
men we concluded that our intercourse had been greatly beneficial 
to them. Some natives present inquiring the tenor of the remarks, 
they were interpreted, when a short pause ensued^ soon broken 
however by a young man jumping up, and saying, The white men 
need not plume themselves on that point ; he was not so certain that 
the advantages of European acquaintance were so great as English- 
men imagined; for he and all the natives had *a stomachful of 


complaints to make against white men in general, and sea captains 
in particular; he accused them of having brought gims which 
killed men at a snap quite quick; stinking waters which took 
away their senses ; diseases which made them die slowly ; all of 
which subjects he amplified with much humour and spirit. 

But I brought Missionaries, blankets, and spades, said the com- 
mander of a merchant vessel, who was one of the party, endea- 
vouring to clear himself from the sweeping censure of the 

True, said the youth, but you also brought guns, and were they 
to dig with, or to clothe us, or to teach us? 

To shoot birds with, responded the captain. 

Indeed ! Do you shoot birds with nmskets in England? — we 
thought you shot birds with the guns you call fowHng-pieces and 
double-barrels; besides, for what purpose was the lead? 

To load the guns to shoot the birds, so that you might have 
food, said the captain, perceiving he was rather losing ground in 
the argument. 

Very good ; but why was it in great lumps, fit only to melt and 
be made into balls ; because as you brought small shot also the 
lumps of lead were not necessary ; and tell us, were the bayonets 
you had for sale to shoot pigeons with? 

Whereupon the good sailor was compelled to admit that he had 
brought a miscellaneous assortment with a view to trade, not 
knowing what articles they might wish to purchase, adding that 
at least the good in his case preponderated over the bad ; a fact 
readily admitted, with the remark that many captains brought a 
great deal of bad and no good at all. 

Wrapping ourselves in the large new blankets the principal 
chief produced from his store-trunk, we slept soimdly until dawn, 
at which early hour we found the crowds of natives listening ynth. 
deep attention as one chief after another testified to some deed of 
worth or valour of their deceased friend. 

He was always first in war and brave ; the heads of his enemies 


which hung round his hut were many ; the slaves he took nume- 
rous ; and then the various wars in which he had been engaged 
were recapitulated with much minuteness. 

Once, said another, we followed our enemies to the banks of a 
rivet",. doMm which they escaped in their canoes; we had none; 
Moki proposed the weaving of a large canoe out of flax-leaves ; 
the great vessel sank much into the water, but was buoyant enough 
to carry the fighting party and we went to sea, followed the enemy 
round the coast, landed, fought, and overcame them. Moki sug- 
gested, Moki encouraged us to go upon the sea in such a trembling 
weak basket ; he first landed on the beach and killed many, many, 
many of the foe. Ah, brave Moki ! 

On one occasion he was accompanied by a party of young men 
to some distance from home, and as the youths were cooking 
their meat a large party of older men belonging to another tribe 
drove them away from the food. To Moki they complained : — ^Our 
hearts are dark, and our limbs weak. Why, said he. We are 
hungry. My children, eat. We cannot; our food is being stolen. 
Indeed ; — and quietly taking his gun he placed himself by the 
oven, saying, The man who puts his finger there shall die. It 
was enough ; the frightened pilferers decamped. 

Morning after morning, evening after evening, the narratives 
continued of some feat of war or memorable act of poor Moki. 

Our attention was soon attracted by a mournful cry emanating 
from an assemblage of females, whose singular proceedings excited 
the most painful interest. 

The front open verandah of a large hut had been decked out 
with feathers, boughs, shells, and fire-arms, and on a low plank 
were placed the skeletons of Moki and his wife, a more elevated 
shelf supporting the two heads; a gay new shawl covered the 
bones from view, and was gathered round the necks of the pre- 
served heads which faced the spectators. 

Grouped before this strange altar-like arrangement were the 


MiTowing wives and the priestess, night and day keeping up a 
intermitting heartreDding wail. 

" He was bo good to us, and loved us." 

And they scored their necke witb the luatu, ji volcanic eilicpoiis 
product used for making mourninj; iuciaiims. 

" He worked in the forest, and with tlic timber purchased dresses 
and blankets tc kety us warm." 

And again would the gash be inflict<:d and the wail raised; — for 
blood shows love, say they. 

" He provided us with food, he will never look upon us again; 
never more will his voice be heard returning with fiah or birds, 
the result of his sport. Who so great as he? — who so good as he? 
— who will bring us rice, tobacco, and sugar now?" And the 
cboms of lamentatioiw rang through the crisp bright morning 
air; the unhappy scene being continually renewed at the iusd- 
gatdos of the priestess, the wretched women gashing their necks 

and hiiw w with the matSy until the miiigled blood and tears 

loUed down their persons in one hideooa stream. 

• • • • • 

One of the English Tintors present, a^cted to Csdntness with 
this manifestation of grief, remored his hat iar a moment, and the 
head chiefs wife, noticing that he was bald, crept np to his friend 
and inq[aiied how it came to pass that the idiite man had no roof 
on his head, and whether it was not painfol to him; she had never 
seen sncha man. 

It was explained that no pain resohed from KaMn^ag^ and that 
such cases were of frequent ooconence in Igtigji^TM^ 

This much astonished the fM lad j. 

A wag of the party oreihearing the oonyersalioii, intimated 
with much grayity that the womoi of Kngland, when displeased, 
sometimes tore off their hnsband*s hair; and soggested that this 
might be an instance of the kind, an insight into European 
manners which still frirther amazed the good woman, who thence- 
forward compassionated the bald pate on his conjngal infelicity. 


New Times — The Missiokabt. 

Waft, waft, jt winds, Hia iloiy! 
And yon, ye walen, roll, 
Till like a sea of glory, 
It ipreads from pole to polel 


BoBN in a seaport in the county of Devon, from which eailed iht- 
annieB of the FirBt Crusades, and whence had issned in after 
times many of the bold spirits who first traversed the Pacific 
Ocean, curbed the Spanish power in the West Indies, and de- 
stroyed the vaunted Armada; tho Christian hero whose history 
we are about to trace had been in early life made faiuiliar with 


the romantic and touching narratiTcs of those deeds of renown, 
and the lore of adventure and travelling had been fostered bj 
intercourse with seamen who, returning home, brought with 
them from foreign shores, coral and sheUs, skins, fruits, parrots, 
and other birds of gorgeous plimiage, with curious articles of 
tasteiiil though rude workmanship; while their strange tales of 
perils among savage men, of gales and wrecks on desert coasts, 
lef^ mysterious impressions of the regions across the sea. 

Oft as the boy wandered on the shores of the magnificent bay, 
in a sheltered nook of which stood the quaint old town of his 
birth, and amused his youths hours collecting seaweeds and 
shells, or climbed the neighbouring heights and rambled in search 
of wild flowers over the fertile country which opened out in lovely 
valleys on every hand, he would stop and dreamily muse while 
he watched some graceful ship recede from the coast before a 
favorable breeze, imtil first her hull, next her lower sails, and 
lastly her mast-heads disappeared from view as she seemed to 
enter the mystic cloud world beyond the horizon. 

Missions to the heathen frequently formed the subject of home 
conversatipn, especially after a visit of the venerable pastor, who 
would sometimes read intelligence from a far ofi" land in which 
the missionary 'writer described his labors, discouragements and 
successes; and the intense interest thus awakened was increased 
by the youth's favourite Sabbath reading, the narrative of St. Paul's 
voyages and travels. 

His devout mother observed and hid these things in her heart, 
praying that he also might do 

** Some worthy deed for haman happiness." 

An apprenticeship to a mechanical trade induced habits of 
persevering continuous toil, obedience and discipline; meanwhile 
the smouldering fire of undefined purpose was kept alive by the 
biographies of such noble men as Henry Martin and David 


« « « « « 


He resolved to become a Missionary. 

• * * • # 

A voyage of several months duration on board an ill-con- 
ditioned whale ship, reeking with foul smells and worse language, 
sleeping in a miserably furnished small cabin, with food of coarse 
description and unwholesome water, were stern introductions to 
the severer trials of mission life, falling as they did upon a sensi- 
tive, poetic, temperament, though imderlying all was a soul full of 
manly vigorous piety, ready to do and endure all things for his 
Divine Master. 

On arrival, a stranger in a strange land, the desolation . of 
loneliness was most oppressive, relieved only by the exercise of 
^th and hope, and the earnest study of the language and native 
modes of thought, preparatory to more direct endeavours to 
dissuade from cruel customs, and to impart higher views of the 
human and Divine natures, than inspired the heathen priests and 
people around him. 

His general course of proceeding was to treat the natives as 
beings gifted like himself with reason and affections, to avoid 
wounding their prejudices or feelings by ridicule or strong 
assertion of the superiority of his own religion, for he had learnt 
of the Great Teacher not to quench the smoking flax nor break 
the bruised reed, and recollected and followed St. Paul's practice 
of taking courteous advantage of any established religious prin- 
ciple or position to obtain attention to his subject, " Whom 
therefore ye ignorantly worship, him declare I unto you," and 
thereby he secured many occasions of throwing the light of 
Christian doctrine, hope and duty, upon those slumbering natural 
truths lying deep in the heart of humanity. " When the Gentiles 
which have not the law, do by nature the things contained in the 
law, these having not the law, are a law unto themselves : which 
shew the work of the law written in their hearts, their conscience 
also bearing witness, and their thoughts the meanwhile accusing 
or else excusint? one another." 

230 MT imST TOTAQS. 

And xhu3 bieaddng up the gromid bj th^ own admismons 
he would pufih home the more promiiient €3iri8tian truths with 
aim{^icitT and clearness. 

A peculiar aptitude for langnages ^ the gift of tongues" con- 
duced to a remarkable fluency, and " in season and out of season" 
as well in casual oonrersations as on s^ fiHmal interviews, when 
he would gire his reasons for the hope within him, and preach 
^ temperance, righteousness, and a judgment to come,^ would he 
gently drop in the seeds d truth, or flash a liring ray of light 
into their minds, disclosing to their consciences the dark cham- 
bers of imagery of their inner lite. 

On some of these occasions the argument would assume the 
form of an appeal to their strong and keen sense of humor and 
the absurd; thus a discussion on the nature of their Grods would 
sosnedmes terminate after this fashion. 

You say that a Water Crod dug this riyer solely in order to 
paddle to the foot of his mountain residence up y<mder. 

We natives say so. Are the Grods more wise and strong than 
human beings? Assuredly, they overturn the canoes whether we 
will or not, and swallow the people and do many things we cannot. 
Is that river straight? No, it has many turns and is very crooked 

Had the Grod been wise, would he have labored so much more 
than was necessary in digging a long winding river, when a short 
straight one would have saved distance, time, and trouble? 

Truly, replied his hearers, laughing, it would seem that the 
Grod was a fool, even we should not have set to work in so 
stupid a manner; but we must not let him hear us say so. 

Of the evils the Atuas (Grods) inflicted they scarcely dared to 
speak for fear of the consequences, but they pondered over these 
conversations as they lay in their low, smoky huts. 

Frequently in arguing the points brought forward they would 
indulge their sarcastic vein; thus after listening to a statement 
on the subject of the Eesxurection, a group of chiefe reclining on 


their mats at the door of a hut enjoying the pleasant sun and 
their pipes would rejoin, " Your religion is good for you white 
men, ours for us natives, if we were to join you, it might please 
you in this world, but in the resurrection of which you speak 
you would say, go away you dark colored dirty natives, your 
mats and blankets are not clean enough to be admitted into our 
company; — on further explanation being attempted they would 
suddenly interrupt with sarcastic banter; Ah! no clothes, good, 
where is your modesty, will not you white people be ashamed to 
be without clothes; on the whole we prefer our own heaven to 
yours, we should like after death to have many wives, much 
feasting and carousing and brave wars, to glitter as the stars 
which are dead chiefs' eves and V)e like our fathitrs. 

Seizing hold of their crude belief in a sensual future state he 
would lead them on to higher, purer, truer thoughts of that 
eternal glorious temple of God's favour and presence to which 
this life shotdd be the Christian's beautiful and peaceful entrance 

The parables and life of Christ he foimd to excite their atten- 
tion and interest, and when in the depths of his holy poetic fervor 
he would break forth in a stream of rich happy eloquence on thf 
subject so near his heart, the Saviour's dying love, they would 
gaze and listen with astonishment, and while some would consider 
it a mental visitation from the Gods, many would deem the subject 
far above their capacity to comprehend and experience, a thing 
to be classed with the white man's other great and various 
knowledges, as the building of ships, the making of guns, blankets, 
and implements ; the ideas, however, sank down into the mindj* 
of others, and one and another would in silent, sad, thouxrhttulne^. 
with subdued spirit, visit the good man to inquire and learn 
more about these matters, and then with unaffected simplicity 
the Christian minister would explain to them the Scriptures, 
the power of God, and the wisdom of Gad. 

The laborious Missionary toile^l on: by dejrrees portions of 


2^ MT riBST VoTJkfiE. 

the Bible were tianslated azid hjmns compoeed. useiiil infor- 
matioa scattered, and schools established, ihe attendance of the 
w ajwa id pupils being retained onh- by the intense desiie to kani 
manifested bv both voung and old. 

Although prerioaslT unacqnaimed with the mvsteriea ci com- 
posing and printing, on the arrival of a press and printer he soon 
acqninsd the art. and speedil v excelled the professional man in 
his style of executii^ the little books which issued frcnn their 

small establishment. 

• • • • • 

In all his work how much soerer depressed the Missionary 
might be, there was one pore firm mind and cheerful spirit, whose 
encouraging hopeful views and lofhr aspirations stimulated to 
renewed effi>rt, soothed in sickness and adriaed in difficulty, the 
Mi8si<HiarT*s wiie was indeed a ** help meet for him." 

In early hSe dieir £unilies had been neighbours, the boy being 
the only child of his parents, the children of the other £umlj 
consLsting of two sisters, the younger a florid, laughter loving, 
bhie eyed girl. wh*> contrasted str«^ngly with the intense lif^ 
which glowed in every action of her pale, rmten tresaed sister. 

The decided character of the elder girl shewed itself in the lead 
she took in their childish play, and when in his youthful enthu- 
siasm the boy would talk of psdm trees, and fierce beasts, and 
savage men. and express a hope that one day he shoold visit snch 
SG0MS, while the younger sister would suggest her fear lest he 
should be killed by the cannibab or die by shqiwreck, the elder 
more fiequently hinted at his want of courage, for she understood 
not the deep earnestness of his nature. 

• Tet with all her raillery, on the occasion of a serious illness in 
which a bumiii^ fever threatened to ccmsume the boy, his most 
sober assiduous attendant and vigilant watcher was the little dsrk- 
oved maiden, from whose hands akne the bitter medicines were 
taken without complaint. 

The small pension which had be»i bestowed upon the girls' 
father for wounds received in the *' imminent deadly breach,"" not 


sufficing to meet the wants of his growing £unily, he removed to 
London, to prociire bj such service as he could perform additional 
income wherewith to maintain an honorable though humble 

Their mother, giiVed with a rich sonorous contralto voice and 
perfect knowledge of music, early tauijht them the principles and 
practice of that science, and the clear tones of the silver voiced 
maidens rang out merrilv in the uiiiairpa5s<^ melodies of the old 
English ballads and glees. 

To secure a g'>o'l edu«.-a:ioii was the anxious care of both 
parents, and the two chi]<lren were placei first as pupils and 
afterwards as teachers in -ine of th vr edu':ational institutions 
whicb at that period were be::—' zotzh^A Lear the metropolis. The 
energy she threw int'.- the jre^t work spe^-di^y raised the elder 
sister to the most promii^ent jy.'«iti n amr:^ the labonous minds 
of the establishment : duiv xo do "i.^rin^^ h'-r iLomin;? motto, and 
duly done her evening sat:*:action. Exce:&%ive larxir in acquiring 
and diffusing knowled;?e, unr^rstmui^e^i by the earnest entreaties of 
the worthy matron, brou^^bt on a serious illness, during a ^radua: 
recovery from which a HErvere trial of criaract^j* in another form 
awaited the joun? t^^acher. 

To win the heart of the r.'^-^.xcr^ii.j 'At. Lad :onj h*ien t>e 
object of the son of a wea'thy c:::z<r:- "w^ho a rormidable rivil 
in a rising autL.r: — w::h ii^extlLnirJ.e; bop^ the ^ame day 
brought commurJcat: :.i rVor:- b.::- >sT.:rtin:=. tr.e d^ftire afrite 
strong, thou^'h the l&r>rr c>i\y,ui'^l '.n zl-.-t-. ^^^.jitSiSiK 'tStL^r^st^ 
the stirred depths .fa ri.lly .JT^.^red i:::^!!-.-.^. 

The maiden scu^^iit hy a ./i^^* -*aik \l. •.}-•; r^ir^ oane?. wl.:t»«r 
hedgerow flowers were r;-: w -jiJ.etfri-rL vo calit tl'.e sc'itarioi cc nirif 
under which the dav's d-ities ?-ad ,— :. T•^:.':'■nrJfti: 'lit wim. irr 
summer air had just \jr*:z^ zrfi^^i.^.zjrr. 'y a ::eii*]e sLcwer. tlir: t-iri 
tiang with meny- thrill. ai:i ti.e reTlvir-:: t-"r*s re; load as TiijiiLC'i 
new wine ran thr/izl*. tr.eir -w.-lie:! reij-S. 

In this va^u- wiJii, i'.er ':;^'tr-r^v;?i -4: A W'^.-v ev^ :.''.N»=rrrc ^ 

•m mm 

H H 


notice, that the ordination of her joathfVil Mend would take 
place that evening: — they had been unaware of each other's 
course of life since parting at the little seaport 

Solemn was the service, and with clear response the high souled 
jouth who had passed through his academic course with universal 
admiration, stood in graceful manhood and with noble simplicity 
to acknowledge his principles and avow his resolution, and in 
that solemnity more than one present lived the past years over 
again in rapid thought, and formed resolves. 

Seated at a small secretary in her chamber, the earnest spirited 
girl penned that evening two letters, couched in terms of tender 
sympathy but polite firm refusal, and transmitting them by the 
first conveyance, the writer, early the following morning, wended 
her anxious way through the mazy streets of the metropolis to the 
temporary home of the Missionary during his preparation for the 
voyage, to him not so wearying a matter as to others who were 
departing about the same time, for he had no family cares. 

With trepidation the wan worn girl, now verging into fall 
womanhood, entered the room, and was greeted with a hearty shake 
of the hand, upon which he imprinted a warm kiss, followed bj 
rapid inquiries after his old friend, her mother. 

Alas, dead ! 

Father ? 

Dead also ! 

And sister ? 

Married: — ^merged in the great world of London. 

And you? 

God*s waves break over me. 

A silence, more meaning than words, followed; at length with 
forced cheerfulness he said, " I am going amongst the savage men 
we used to talk about." 

♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ 

Her brimming ejea revealed the secret of her soul I 


Improved health resulted from peace of mind, her strong 
affections finding repose in the admiring love of a noble-minded 
husband, and with all the ardour of her nature she prepared to 
second his labours. 

On arriyal abroad she soon found a large sphere for her activity 
and intelligence; becoming ihe kind friend of the elder females, 
the nurse of the sick, the instructress of the young, teaching 
them domestic duties, the use of the needle, and the mysteries of 
reading and writing; hymns she composed for them, and little 
books, and taught them to sing the songs of Zion; and from her 
pen proceeded many of those exquisitely simple, picturesque, and 
pathetic descriptions and appeals which have so often won over 
to the Mission cause the hearts of doubtful, cold, Christians. 

Hearing the little prattlers of the Mission family call the good 
wife ^' Mother,*' the native women, not having a word in their 
own tongue expressive of that endearing relation, the nearest 
being *' a female parent,'' coined a word, '^ Mata," being as close 
as they could pronounce the Saxon word mother; and thus the 
young Englishwoman became the mother of all, old women and 
babes, young maidens and sturdy men, all learned to style her 
mother, and from that time to this day the Missionaries' wives 
have been designated *' Mothers." 

Gathering around the chair of the young Englishwoman, a 
group of veteran waniors wotdd frequently seat themselves at her 
feet, and some would gaze upon the printed pages with dreamy 
listlessness, and exclaim, ^* Book too full, dear mother, — memory 
of old natives too bent like old moon, — ^but with, a struggling 
melancholy earnestness would add, — ^young mother must read, 
and the words will go down into our hearts, and growing up will 
produce good fruit like the peach trees. Others would attack the 
task bravely, and as they acquired the power of joining the letters 
into words, would exult at their progress in the divine art of 
reading; then the Lord's Prayer would be repeated, sentence by 
sentence, until perfectly learnt, and with intense attention did 


they listen to the quiet teaching of the Christian wife as she 
explained the meaning of this model prayer. 
' The ancient women also confided to her their sorrows, and 
sought her counsels in their perplexities ; and their frequent soli- 
citations to explain this and to advise upon that, bore witness to 
the influence and superior power of educated intelligence over the 

teachings of barbarian experience. 

* ♦ * ♦ ♦ 

The habit of observation acquired in early life, aided by the 
systematic reading and study of after years, invested with a 
peculiar charm the many novel natural objects which now sur- 
rounded the Missionary. With grace and truthfulness he 
penned notices of the botany, zoology, and geology of the coun- 
try; and his short, clear, expressive communications on these 
subjects were ever received with immixed delight by the learned 
in England. 

Nor did these occasional reliefs from his more serious avocations 
appear to him an infringement of duty; having long learned the 
lesson that Nature and Revelation emanate frx)m the same 
Almighty Father, and that '^ His works are sought out of all 
them that have pleasure therein ;" moreover he conceived that this 
life and the next are but as two volumes of the one history of 
man, whose duty to both states is alike incumbent. 

To bless barbarism with the light and consolation of religion, 
and the arts of civilization, and to present to the eyes of the 
civilized world any new treasures he might discover in the store- 
house of God's creation were equaUy, he deemed, parts, though 
differing immensely in importance, of the high duty of his life. 

As the monks have left traces of their love of horticulture in 
the gardens of the old abbeys and colleges of England, so our 
Missionary's first impulse on settling in a new district was to sur- 
roimd his dwelling with a vineyard and garden well stocked with 
every obtainable fruit-tree and plant Nor was the cheering 
solace of music and song forgotten, and in the still summer even- 


ing might the happy sounds of human vi»ices, with flute accom- 
paniment, be heard ari^ini? fr<>m thf Mi?>ioiiarv's ]i<ime: his family 
singing the diJOferent parts to tlie WModer and admiration <if the 
listening natives. In the plannini: and buildinir of hoiLses and 
boats his skill and aid were often s«iu;jrlit and freely bestf>wed, and 
the impress of his genius was manifi-st tbrou;.'liuut the land; the 
head and hand of a master mind bein'^ evt-rvwhere visible. 

Years of instruction, arprument, and example, and attendance 
on the sick wrought a prreat chani'e. 

You may recollect, said a venerable chief to the Missioiuir}', 
that soon after you first came 1 was very ill, and sent for the 
prayer-man of my tribe, who mumbled many incantations, and at 
last lay down by me, and fr«»m beneath his mat pulled out a 
broken tin pot which he alle;:e<l he had taken from my side, and 
had been the cause of all my pain. Ah I added the fine old man, 
"with a laugh, and I was so foolish as to believe him. 

Unlimited was their faith in the Missionary's medical skill ; and 
tooth-ache, gun-shot wounds, fevers, bad eyes, and all the diseases 
of youth and age were brought for his examination and treatment. 

Homeopathy they could never have underst<jod ; as the sum 
total of their physic logic was comprised in the sentence, " If a 
little is good, more must be better." They would say, *' Why 
-wait several days to recover, each day drinking a little of the 
nauseous stuff, better to take the whole medicine at once and 
be well to-morrow;" and frequently, in spite of strict injunctions 

to the contrary, three doses would ]>e imbibed at a draught. 

« # * * * 

Many powerful tribes abandoned heathen customs, discontinued 
theft, and were bright examples to Europeans, joined the Missiv^n 
and adopted Christian worship ; and solemn, and not easily to In? 
effaced fix)m the memory, was the sight of hundreds of reformed 
savages, clothed, and sitting in their right mind, joining in praise 
and following their pastor as a deep murmuring echo in the 
simple accents of the Lord's Prayer. 


Nor lacked the good Missionary other strong decisive evidence 
of the firm hold his principles had taken on their minds ; in proof 
of which one collective and one individual instance are all our 
space will allow of being introduced into this little volume. 

Collective. In one district several tribes came to the conclusion 
that it did not comport with their Christian profession to possess 
arms, and for a long season fire-arms were totally discarded, the 
most savage people in the world thus restraining their most 
powerful propensity as a result of their embracing Christianity, 
nor was the defensive possession of weapons resumed until an 
influential Christian Chief had been shot dead by the heathen, 
the blanket of his young companion who escaped being pierced 
with many bullet holes. 

Individual. At a subsequent period one chieftain who had 
procured a valuable fowling-piece, at the expense of many weeks' 
labour, felling timber in the forest, was returning to his potato- 
harvest with his family, when, passing through a narrow gorge 
of the river, the strong eddies caused the deeply-laden canoe to 
strike upon a rock and overturn. 

A few days afterwards the following conversation occurred 
between the writer and the chief: — 

Author: Your canoe upset a few days ago? 

Chief: Yes. 

Author: I hear you lost your clothes, spades, axes ? 

Chief: All. 

Author: And that beautiful gun which I recollect you prized 
so much ? 

Chief: I had that in my hand and was swimming to the 

Author : Were you exhausted, and obliged to part from it ? 

Chief: No; but while swimming I saw my book (Testament) 
floating near, so I let my gim sink, and swam after my book, 
which I saved. 


Returning from an exhausting, li'dious ji mmcy of several weeks' 
doTStion, undertAlcen to further his ;:reai work, the Misiiiunury's 
homeirard course required a sea passagi; by canoe. 

For a while tliey 3tui<.-d happily as on the waters of bliss until, 
crossing an estuaiy, and buing at some miles Jisiunce from the 
shore, a misuoderstood Uiructii'ii as to tlii; setting of u large mat 
sail resulted in the overturning of the frail bark. 

By great exertion it was righted, and ao attempt made to dis- 
burthen it of Its watery carjro. Alas ! traditions of tliu devour- 
ing sea-gods flaslied across the minds of surae of the crc^w, part 
of whom were swimming, and others supporting themselves l)y 
holding on to the sides of ihe canoe, and despite tlie sublime 
calm of the few, consternation seized ihe majority, and in the Ut- 
rible death struggle which followed they turned the canoe bottom 
upwards, and most of tlie native crew, with our friend, sank to 
their long sleep in the depths of ocean, where " they rest from 
their labours and their works follow them." 






t .,